5

English has the suffix -age as one way of indicating that a noun is mass. Wiktionary defines it as "Forming nouns with the sense of collection or appurtenance." It's not a regular marker of mass, but it's a fairly productive derivation: A break is a single fracture or other failure; breakage is one or more such failures. The Jargon File lists lossage as "...


5

I've seen reference to this sort of construction being called "massification", and also "transformateur qualitatif". Massification (en): (grammar) Conversion of a count noun to a mass noun. Massifier (fr): Faire devenir un phénomène de masse, donner un effet de masse à (quelque chose). [en: To cause to become a mass phenomenon, to give a mass effect to (...


3

Yes, it can in fact be plural in most European languages. In French, Italian, German, Spanish, Russian et altri there are connaissances, conoscenze, Kenntnisse, conocimientos, знания... which are typically plural and translated into English as knowledge in many contexts. Note that most Germanic and Latin languages have a distinction between connaitre and ...


3

In Asturian, they are marked by gender. Uncountables (or mass nouns) are neuter. Words that be both countable and not will change gender with the countable form being masculine or feminine. L'arena ye blancoNEUT. (the sand is white, as mass) L'arena ye blancaFEM. (the [grain of] sand is white, as countable) Likewise, the pronouns change. L'agua, ¿...


1

If we translate the two sentences, preserving the definite/indefinite articles, we would get something like: مائدة من النحاس المحفور = a table of (the) engraved brass Of course in English, you would not typically use the in this context. عوارض غليظة من خشب = rough joists of (some) wood In practice, often the definite or indefinite forms would be used ...


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