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You may find this ultrasound study useful, since it discusses the inconsistent claims about Russian (concluding that there is both uvularization and velarization and not pharyngealization, depending on the consonant). However, note that her framework (Esling's) makes some definitional assumptions about larynx raising and pharyngealization. Not that I dispute ...


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There is an affinity between uvularization and pharygealization, described by Jørgen Rischel in Topics in West Greenlandic Phonology, and if some things called "velarized" are actually uvularized, as I believe to be the case, then that may get us further on the way to finding out why sometimes tongue backing evokes pharyngealization. Recall the feature ...


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