8 votes
Accepted

To what extent was Chomsky influenced by Tesnière?

I do not think that Chomsky ever cited Tesnière in a meaningful way, because if he had, we would know about it. I state this as the main translator of Tesnière's work Elements of structural syntax ...
  • 5,291
7 votes

Why is constituency needed, since dependency gets the job done more easily and economically?

I hope I correctly understand the question as being a general one, rather than particularly about automated parsing. Here's what I was taught in Syntax and believed ever since (but maybe I missed ...
3 votes
Accepted

Convert a non projective dependency tree to a projective one

I've just seen your question, I don't know whether it's still relevant, but here you have a paper that describes how to projectivise a dependency tree. http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P05-1013
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3 votes

How do you draw a Dependency tree diagram of a verbless clause such as "Me too"?

Honestly, because you are asking at such a high level--just "dependency grammar" or "constituency grammar", rather than a specific grammatical theory, this question is likely not really answerable. ...
  • 1,166
3 votes

Is there a grammar of syntax that takes into account inherent syntactic ambiguity in natural languages?

Yes, cognitive and construction grammars do take ambiguity into account. However, they have to give up a lot of the formal properties of traditional constituency and dependency grammars. It resolves ...
3 votes

X-bar theory without movement

You might want to have a look at LFG, they use X' Theory extended with an additional "lexocentric" category S to accommodate nonconfigurational phrase structures.
  • 2,489
3 votes
Accepted

Where can I find a good primer of dependency grammar?

There is no good introductory textbook on dependency grammar (DG) in English that I am aware of; certainly nothing at the level of Linda Thomas' book, which is really very basic. The books linked to ...
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3 votes

How do formal theories analyse the syntax of polysynthetic languages?

The question is too broad to answer completely (to start with, it presupposes a shibboleth to distinguish formal theories of syntax), but the answer is easy for minimalism. The comment in the ...
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3 votes
Accepted

Is there a paradigmatic formalism for dependency grammars?

Some remarks are necessary before answering such a question. CFGs have been an important step in the history of formal grammars, but it is not exactly the example we want to follow in DG and in ...
3 votes

Is there a paradigmatic formalism for dependency grammars?

The formalizations of dependency theory exist. In fact I have a colleague who specializes in mathematical formalizations of principles of syntax, and he is more a DG guy (dependency grammar) than a ...
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3 votes
Accepted

Steps to build a dependency parser

I suppose you mean a rule-based parser since nobody would think of developing his own statistical parser (there are so many good open-source libraries). Building a parser is quite complicated. The ...
  • 2,489
3 votes

dependency or constituency treebank?

Regarding your second question, Michael Collins gives a nice explanation in his MOOC on NLP, summarized in this slide: In short: with the usual CKY algorithm in PCFG parsing, which is based on ...
3 votes

German Dependency Parsing - question about dependencies between "sich ____ lassen"

Thanks for your question. This example reflects a larger problem in grammaticizing language. Roughly speaking there are two approaches: Generative and descriptive. A parser is generative, presupposing ...
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3 votes
Accepted

In these sentences, are these direct objects and oprds?

Yes, your analyses are correct. The adjectives interesting, very happy, and green are object predicatives, that is, they are predications over the object each time (not over the subject). The ...
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3 votes
Accepted

The Meaning <=> Text Theory (MTT)

The answers to the four questions posed are certainly going to vary based on the expert consulted. Phrase structure grammarians view aspects of word order differently from dependency grammarians. I ...
  • 5,291
3 votes

Why is the subject outside the VP in most theories of syntax?

First of all, it should be noted that in nearly all generative theories--even in ones which generate subjects inside the VP--the subject practically never stays there for long. Subjects generally move ...
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2 votes
Accepted

dependency or constituency treebank?

There is a rather simple answer to this question. This answer is that conversion from dependency to constituency is not really possible, at least not in the way imagined. Dependency structures are ...
  • 5,291
2 votes

"Toy" Tools for Dependency Parsing?

spaCy.io has a nice high-accuracy lightweight parser. If you only need English then it is a good choice.
2 votes

Where can I find a good primer of dependency grammar?

This book is good though quite old: The Meaning of the Sentence in its Semantic and Pragmatic Aspects Geert-Jan Kruijff gave a nice course at ESSLLI: DG, and you can google up his papers on DG. XDG ...
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2 votes

Computational model of dependency parsing

Dependency parsing is constraint solving. I recommend you have a look at XDG, which is the only formally precise dependency grammar approach I'm aware of.
  • 2,489
2 votes

Governors of adjectives in dependency grammars

No. The annotation choices referred to in the question that are currently encountered in in some dependency treebanks are not well motivated linguistically. The question is centrally concerned with ...
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2 votes
Accepted

What constitutes a Long Distance Dependency, and how can it be quantified?

Long distance dependencies have to do with clauses. They occur when some element within a clause is "missing". Depending on what kind of grammar you subscribe to, you might want to think of ...
2 votes

How to draw the NP "so little" in "He said so little" in a tree diagram?

There are a number of possibilities for the X-bar analysis of the phrase so little. A central choice one has to make concerns viewing little as an adjective or as a derived noun, that is, as a noun ...
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2 votes

Syntax trees associated with Prepositional Phrases as subject

I am part of the team that developed the SUD syntactic format mentioned by Tim in his answer. The other participants are Sylvain Kahane, Kim Gerdès and Bruno Guillaume. The third analysis presented ...
2 votes
Accepted

Do all frameworks of syntax view the string following an inverted auxiliary verb in English as the complement of the auxiliary?

Most modern phrase structure grammars will assume that the string immediately after an inverted auxiliary is the complement of the auxiliary, as the question implies. This fact is largely due to the ...
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2 votes

Is there a Chinese translation of Tesniere's Elements of Syntactic Structure?

I do not think there is a Chinese translation of Tesnière's oeuvre. I recall a few years ago -- in about 2015 -- that there was someone who was planning to produce a Chinese translation, but I was ...
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2 votes
Accepted

Dependency grammar on ditransitive objects

To understand the quoted figure the text around it is necessary. The reference parse (a) is the correct parse, the system parse (b) is generated by an (in this case unnamed) automatic system and ...
1 vote

Computational model of dependency parsing

There are many actively researched aspects in the field of natural language parsing. Nearly all of this activity is on statistical parsers. Consequently, there is no "standard" computational model for ...
  • 3,538
1 vote

X-bar theory without movement

To my mind, the canonical "generative but non-derivational" work is the stuff that Michael Brody did. Have a look at his book Lexico-Logical Form, which is a great and detailed exploration of an ...
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