4

None known to me. But, by default, rate of change is just difference divided by time. Assuming we know the time for each language pair we care about, then the question is just how to measure the difference between languages, which is a more established field. A key nuance of measuring differences between languages is that they can be directed - diff(b, a) ...


4

Leiden school are people who propose some strict rules for PIE and strictly adhere to them. Strict root structure, no vowels except /o/ and /e/, three laryngeals etc. Their opponents are conservatives who are either skeptic about some of the Leiden rules or those who supports more loose rules (for instance, vowel /a/ in borrowed words, 4 laryngeals, some ...


3

There is a corpus of internet discussion boards that is split up into weekly files that spans 4 years. It is freely downloadable here: http://www.psych.ualberta.ca/~westburylab/downloads/usenetcorpus.download.html


3

It is not clear what you mean by "prolonged", but if you want to know how long vowels can appear in a language that earlier had none of them, one way of it is when a consonant between 2 vowels disappears and the vowels merge. The Turkic and Mongolian languages that have long vowels got them this way, the earliest Turkic and Mongolian languages had no short ...


3

I believe that Chomsky and Halle's SPE theory predicts progressive assimilation of voice. For English morphologically simple forms, the only way you can have a weak word initial syllable followed immediately by a stressed syllable (as in "Moˌnonga'hela") is when the initial syllable has a secondary stress (as in "ˌMon'tana"). However, in words with ...


3

This thesis by Bruin argues that aspiration is a feature of Old English, as also argued for Germanic in various places by Iverson & Salmons. Aspiration i.e. positive VOT is one of those under-reported phonetic details that is often ignored. For example, very few Bantu languages have an aspiration contrast and instead have a t/d voicing contrast, except ...


3

I don't see how you reached the conclusion that Old English stops were unaspirated. Here is the most relevant reference I found: "T" and "p" were possibly pronounced exactly like in Modern English "turn" and "police" respectively, but it is also possible that they were pronounced unaspirated - like in Modern Dutch. from Old_English/Fōresprǣc. And see ...


3

It sounds like you are asking e.g. "why do we have a suffix -s for the plural", "why do we have a prefix un- for negatives", etc. The alternative would be to mark the function with a separate word like "not, no". The alternation would then be two or more word forms. There is a sub-theme connected to this, seen rampantly in German and a bit in English, namely ...


2

Mergers to /i/ are not uncommon in general. The asymmetrical development of η, ει, ω, ου to [i, i, o, u] reminds me of how Middle English /ɛː/ /eː/ /ɔː/ /oː/ become early modern English [iː, iː, oː, uː]. In fact, English has merged many different Old English vowels to /i/ (the fleece vowel, also written /iː/): Old English ē /eː/, ǣ /æː/, ēa /æːɑ̯/ (or /æə/, ...


2

Consider two phenomena: Dialectal differences emerge in isolation. The more isolated a community is, from a linguistic perspective, the more likely it is that its dialect will differ from those of its neighbours. Children do not learn their dialect from their parents, but from the reference groups in their childhood, most likely peers, nannies, preschool ...


2

The addition of the letter s forms an iterative verb. There are more examples in Germanic languages, e.g. Low German hoppen "to hop", High German hopsen "to bounce, to lollop". The second step is called metathesis and this is again not an unusual process, for instance the English word wasp is derived from to weave (because of the nests that wasps build) ...


2

Presumably 'the Leiden School' refers to the views of the professor (who is respected) there. To discover his views look at Kortlandt, Frederik 'Studies in Germanic, Indo-European and Indo-Uralic' (Amsterdam, 2012). Every University that teaches Indo-European studies will have a leading professor who, if he's worth his pay, will have his own views on the ...


1

Why do you need to download such corpus? The corpus managers enable you to search for these corpora better than to work with them on your own computers... You can see dozens of corpora in Sketch Engine which some of them are freely available, e.g. 62-million-word English corpus ACL Anthology Reference Corpus (ARC) available at https://the.sketchengine.co.uk/...


1

Yes. There is ample empirical evidence for it; the diversity of American English is not bigger than the diversity of British English, never mind the difference in size between the US and the UK. The same goes, probably with even greater intensity, for Brazilian Portuguese versus European Portuguese. And the phenomenon isn't even greately affected by lack of ...


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