26 votes
Accepted

Can Someone Identify This Diacritic?

This is the predecessor to the modern umlaut: a small letter "e" written above a vowel. The name looks like "Schankär" to me. If you want to represent this very literally in ...
Draconis's user avatar
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24 votes

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

Hebrew is one of those languages. The dagesh is placed inside the letter. For example: Bet without dagesh: ב Bet with dagesh: בּ‎ The shuruk vowel point (nikkud) is placed to the left of the letter (...
Robert Columbia's user avatar
20 votes
Accepted

Why are letters with a stroke not decomposed in Unicode?

Contrary to what the other answers have stated, the Unicode Standard does not actually care whether Ø or Ð or any other character is “fundamentally a different letter” or not, whatever that may even ...
CharlotteBuff's user avatar
14 votes

Can Someone Identify This Diacritic?

@Caimarvon and @Draconis made simple work of what's an absolute mystery to people like my family and I, who are only amateur linguists in the same way that pushing an apple onto a stick could be ...
JBH's user avatar
  • 493
14 votes

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

Some examples: d̵ which does not render well here (using the separate diacritic), but exists in Ð and đ, as well as e.u. o̵ (again, rendering problem), that is o-bar, and do on. The latter is ...
user6726's user avatar
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12 votes

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

In the Japanese hiragana syllabary, the softening mark (dakuten) on the symbol て (te) is technically inside the letter, giving で (de).
Jan's user avatar
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12 votes
Accepted

Diphthongs and macrons in Hawaiian

This is actually an interesting question, but in order to answer it properly I'll have to provide a brief introduction of Hawaiian vocalism. Let me start from the beginning. In Hawaiian, like in many ...
Tochtli's user avatar
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12 votes

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

Comanche uses “U bar” <Ʉ, ʉ> in the official orthography for /ə/. Other languages that use this letter in their official orthographies include Kanakanabu (an Austronesian lanuage of Taiwan) and ...
Yellow Sky's user avatar
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12 votes
Accepted

How is French written in telegraphy and other settings in which diacritics are not possible?

There is no common conventions in French for replacing letters with diacritics by digraphs. In contexts where the diacritics are not available, the usage is just to omit them. This is still common ...
AProgrammer's user avatar
11 votes
Accepted

How Hebrew Vowels Work

Perhaps it is helpful to understand some of the history behind this mixed system. Originally, Hebrew was never written with niqudot (diacritics added above, below, or within consonantal signs; ...
Keelan's user avatar
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10 votes

What IPA Symbols Are Equivalent to Each of These Middle High German Diacritics?

Most of the quoted characters do not stand for a single phoneme, they are either just a spelling convention for the sequence of the two characters or a scribal abbreviation whose reading may depend on ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
7 votes

How is French written in telegraphy and other settings in which diacritics are not possible?

Absolutely, jst lke Englsh cn wrk jst fne wth all the vwls in the mddle of wrds rmvd cmpltly. If you're a native English-speaker, you probably read that sentence without much difficulty, even though I ...
Draconis's user avatar
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7 votes

Can Someone Identify This Diacritic?

Shankaͤr aͤ eͤ iͤ oͤ uͤ Is equivalent to Shankär äëïöü, it's an old style germanic umlaut, and is another way of writing ä ë ï ö ü, but rarely used in modern script. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
Tom J Nowell's user avatar
6 votes
Accepted

How to "remove diacritics" from Arabic text in unicode?

It seems to me that the issue is defining what you mean by "diacritic". You strip the under-dots from yeh, but not from beh.You strip off hamza, maddah, nukta but preserve the diacritic in ...
user6726's user avatar
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6 votes

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

In Modern Greek the accent (tonos — τόνος) is placed on the left of capital letters: Ά Έ Ί Ό Ύ Ώ Contrast that with the diairesis sign (dialytika — διαλυτικά), which is placed on top: Ϊ Ϋ In Ancient ...
Diomidis Spinellis's user avatar
6 votes

Why are letters with a stroke not decomposed in Unicode?

For the same reason that eth (Ðð) doesn't compose into Dd + COMBINING SHORT STROKE OVERLAY. Namely, it looks like a D with a stroke through it, but it's fundamentally a different letter, and there's ...
Draconis's user avatar
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5 votes

What does the diacritic in [e̯], [ɔʏ̯] mean?

The diacritic ̯ means "non-syllabic", and it typically used to refer to phonetic situations where a vowel seems to be pronounced as "a glide". You could write the IPA letter [j] as [i̯], but there is ...
user6726's user avatar
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5 votes
Accepted

Language with the highest ratio of diacritics to letters in typical text

If we are speaking of current official spelling systems, I believe that Vietnamese wins the prize. Potential competitors would most likely be a language with a rich vowel system than included ...
user6726's user avatar
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5 votes

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

Polish has one letter with oblique strike in the middle and two letters with hooks in the right bottom corner. All these have upper and lowercase forms. Ł, ł, Ą, ą, Ę, ę
ElmoVanKielmo's user avatar
4 votes

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

In Czech, the caron on lowercase letters "t" and "d" is placed to the side rather than directly on top: ť, ď.
Angew is no longer proud of SO's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

Do other languages using the Latin alphabet borrow diacritics from one another?

Yes. In German, the noun Café (cafe, directly borrowed from French café) is written almost exclusively with an accent on the e. It contrats with the word Kaffee, meaning coffee in written language, ...
Jan's user avatar
  • 1,160
4 votes

Is [ë̞] another symbol for [ə]?

Typically linguists use such diacritics when the sound they're describing is in between the sounds associated with unmodified base glyphs of the IPA. So I would not expect the author to write [ë̞] to ...
drammock's user avatar
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4 votes

Are there any diacritics not on the top or bottom of a letter?

One approach to answering this type of question is to query the Unicode Character Database. One of the many useful features of Unicode that is it tracks various properties of each character, some ...
Solomon Rutzky's user avatar
3 votes

Language with the highest ratio of diacritics to letters in typical text

Ozumacín Chinantec has ten vowels (a, ä, e, ë, i, ɨ, o, ø, u, ʉ), which may be nasalized (indicated by an underscore), and nine tones (indicated by ˈ, ˊ, ˉ, ꜗ, ꜘ, ꜙ, ꜚ, ˜, ˋ after the syllable). This ...
Uwe's user avatar
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3 votes
Accepted

Can anyone send me a link or recommend me a book about IPA diacritics?

A good and official source for IPA letters is here. From it you can learn exactly what each diacritic is called, e.g. ̥ is "voiceless". This also includes illustrative performances of most of the IPA ...
user6726's user avatar
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3 votes

What is the diacritic macron bellow (◌̱) used in the IPA

IPA doesn't use the macron below ◌̱. The minus sign below ◌̠ looks basically the same and can be used to indicate a retracted articulation; but this is not necessary in English dictionaries. That ...
melissa_boiko's user avatar
3 votes

Can broad and narrow transcription be distinguished by whether a transcription makes use of diacritics?

No. First off, "broad" versus "narrow" transcription is a spectrum. One transcription can be broader or narrower than another (or broader/narrower in particular ways) but there's ...
Draconis's user avatar
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2 votes

What are unaccented letters called?

The best you can do is "Latin (Roman) letter", referring to the letters used by write Latin – which did not use those diacritics. This excludes all modern inventions like <ŋ ɓ ɔ ʕ>. Or,...
user6726's user avatar
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2 votes

Is [ë̞] another symbol for [ə]?

I agree with @drammock and would add this. IPA is really a phonetically-based system of phonological symbolization. When a person write a certain sound of a language as [ɪ] or [e], that is in part a ...
user6726's user avatar
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