24

This is the predecessor to the modern umlaut: a small letter "e" written above a vowel. The name looks like "Schankär" to me. If you want to represent this very literally in Unicode, the codepoint is U+0364, "Combining Latin Small Letter E". But most people just normalize it to the easily-recognizable two dots.


12

@Caimarvon and @Draconis made simple work of what's an absolute mystery to people like my family and I, who are only amateur linguists in the same way that pushing an apple onto a stick could be thought a wheel. Their insight led me to Diacritics for medieval studies by Marc Wilhelm Küster and Isabel Wojtovicz, which explained the Combining Latin Small ...


12

There is no common conventions in French for replacing letters with diacritics by digraphs. In contexts where the diacritics are not available, the usage is just to omit them. This is still common on uppercase letters, and was very common in the early days of Internet when programs were not 8-bit clean and accented letters were causing problems. The ...


11

Perhaps it is helpful to understand some of the history behind this mixed system. Originally, Hebrew was never written with niqudot (diacritics added above, below, or within consonantal signs; singular niqud). Although there is a high theoretical ambiguity in such a writing system (e.g. שמר for šāmar 'he guarded', šəmor 'guard!', šomēr '(a) guard') this ...


7

Absolutely, jst lke Englsh cn wrk jst fne wth all the vwls in the mddle of wrds rmvd cmpltly. If you're a native English-speaker, you probably read that sentence without much difficulty, even though I removed a whole bunch of information from it. Languages, as a rule, include a whole lot of redundancy. Speaking is a pretty noisy channel, and a lot of ...


6

Shankaͤr aͤ eͤ iͤ oͤ uͤ Is equivalent to Shankär äëïöü, it's an old style germanic umlaut, and is another way of writing ä ë ï ö ü, but rarely used in modern script. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_umlaut In blackletter handwriting, as used in German manuscripts of the later Middle Ages and also in many printed texts of the early modern period, the ...


4

The easiest way to solve your problem is to create your own keyboard layout (it applies if you use MS Windows, or just google the phrase for other platforms). You can use Latvian keyboard layout as a base, it already has š and vowel letters with macrons (like ā and ū). You'll only have to define the keys for the letters with the under-dot, like ṭ, and for ḫ.


3

French with accents and diacritics is confortable to read, as it provides all necessary information. "Bare" French requires some guesswork. Middle French used not to have accents, but there was quite a lot of mute consonants, that were used to clarify neighboring vowels.


3

Everybody has to deal with diacritics, be they phoneticians, syntacticians, or politicians, as long as the language involved is one of the majority of languages that uses diacritics. Diacritics are simply little marks put somewhere near a bigger letter which happens to also be useable without the diacritic. For example, the letter usually refers to the ...


3

Your two examples both show a different kind of process. In German, you remove the diacritics and retain the information that they encode. And you do it in a way that is broadly consistent with the conventions of German orthography for removing diacritics. However, in French, you simply remove the diacritics and any information that may have been encoded ...


3

A good and official source for IPA letters is here. From it you can learn exactly what each diacritic is called, e.g. ̥ is "voiceless". This also includes illustrative performances of most of the IPA letters, although there is a gap for the vowel-nudging diagritics. To go with that, I suggest Ladefoged & Maddieson The sounds of the world's languages, ...


2

"Orthography" is simply the rules of writing a language, so it's not particularly distinct from "spelling". If you wanted to draw a line between them, you could say that "spelling" is specifically the sequence of characters making up the word, while "orthography" also encompasses the details of individual characters, so that writing the letter N backwards ...


2

That text uses the old (obsolete) orthography developed by J.G. Christaller about 150 years ago. (t)w̌ represents labio-palatalization, IPA [tɕɥ], which is now simply tw (it's predictable, but was in the old spelling because it's phonetically noteworthy). Akan vowels are a bit challenging since it sounds like they have 3 kinds of mid vowels (ɛ e ɪ but ɪ ...


2

If we are speaking of current official spelling systems, I believe that Vietnamese wins the prize. Potential competitors would most likely be a language with a rich vowel system than included independent tone, phonation and nasalization contrast, which points to Ju|'hoansi and !Xóõ, which would have a higher maximum and probably a higher text frequency – if ...


2

The diacritic ̯ means "non-syllabic", and it typically used to refer to phonetic situations where a vowel seems to be pronounced as "a glide". You could write the IPA letter [j] as [i̯], but there is a special symbol for non-syllable /i/. There is no special symbol for non-syllabic [e], hence the need to resort to the diacritic in [̯e]. The reason for the ...


1

The combining breve below means "non-syllabic" - to contrast with the normal idea of vowels as syllabic (form the nucleus of a syllable). Modern linguists tend to notate parts of a diphthong with a non-syllabic consonant like over an equivalent semivowel like in diphthongs because: 1) some languages do have diphthongs with a semivowel that does not occur ...


1

Some American textbooks for (modern) languages will use an underdot (U+0323) to represent stressed syllables that must be memorized. As long as you explain to your reader what you mean, that could be a good alternative: per Chaos học ịngēns uāstīque silentia rēgnī Doesn't look as good with SE's default font, but most serif fonts I've seen prints ...


1

I do not see any problem with the way you did it in your second grey box: you put a macron immediately above the long vowels, and indicated the scansion of the verse (heavy and light syllables) in a separate line above the text. That is standard procedure. But if you want to call attention to the unorthographic scansion of “hoc”, you could always write “hoc(...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible