24

This is the predecessor to the modern umlaut: a small letter "e" written above a vowel. The name looks like "Schankär" to me. If you want to represent this very literally in Unicode, the codepoint is U+0364, "Combining Latin Small Letter E". But most people just normalize it to the easily-recognizable two dots.


23

Hebrew is one of those languages. The dagesh is placed inside the letter. For example: Bet without dagesh: ב Bet with dagesh: בּ‎ The shuruk vowel point (nikkud) is placed to the left of the letter (afterwards, from the perspective of reading, since reading is done from the right to the left). Vav without pointing: ו Vav with shurruk: וּ Note that these ...


14

Some examples: d̵ which does not render well here (using the separate diacritic), but exists in Ð and đ, as well as e.u. o̵ (again, rendering problem), that is o-bar, and do on. The latter is official IPA, the former is orthography (đ in a number of languages including Saami, Vietnamese and S. Slavic). The rhotic hook ˞ is also not on the top or bottom, ...


12

In the Japanese hiragana syllabary, the softening mark (dakuten) on the symbol て (te) is technically inside the letter, giving で (de).


12

Comanche uses “U bar” <Ʉ, ʉ> in the official orthography for /ə/. Other languages that use this letter in their official orthographies include Kanakanabu (an Austronesian lanuage of Taiwan) and Koyukon for /ɞ/ (an Athabascan language spoken in Alaska). <Ɨ, ɨ> is used in Mfumte (Nfumte), a Grassfields Bantu language of Cameroon for /ɯ/. Apart from ...


12

@Caimarvon and @Draconis made simple work of what's an absolute mystery to people like my family and I, who are only amateur linguists in the same way that pushing an apple onto a stick could be thought a wheel. Their insight led me to Diacritics for medieval studies by Marc Wilhelm Küster and Isabel Wojtovicz, which explained the Combining Latin Small ...


12

There is no common conventions in French for replacing letters with diacritics by digraphs. In contexts where the diacritics are not available, the usage is just to omit them. This is still common on uppercase letters, and was very common in the early days of Internet when programs were not 8-bit clean and accented letters were causing problems. The ...


11

Perhaps it is helpful to understand some of the history behind this mixed system. Originally, Hebrew was never written with niqudot (diacritics added above, below, or within consonantal signs; singular niqud). Although there is a high theoretical ambiguity in such a writing system (e.g. שמר for šāmar 'he guarded', šəmor 'guard!', šomēr '(a) guard') this ...


7

Absolutely, jst lke Englsh cn wrk jst fne wth all the vwls in the mddle of wrds rmvd cmpltly. If you're a native English-speaker, you probably read that sentence without much difficulty, even though I removed a whole bunch of information from it. Languages, as a rule, include a whole lot of redundancy. Speaking is a pretty noisy channel, and a lot of ...


6

In Modern Greek the accent (tonos — τόνος) is placed on the left of capital letters: Ά Έ Ί Ό Ύ Ώ Contrast that with the diairesis sign (dialytika — διαλυτικά), which is placed on top: Ϊ Ϋ In Ancient Greek the same holds true for the acute accent (oxeia — οξεία), the grave accent (vareia — βαρεία), the circumflex (perispomeni — περισπωμένη), the rough ...


6

Shankaͤr aͤ eͤ iͤ oͤ uͤ Is equivalent to Shankär äëïöü, it's an old style germanic umlaut, and is another way of writing ä ë ï ö ü, but rarely used in modern script. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_umlaut In blackletter handwriting, as used in German manuscripts of the later Middle Ages and also in many printed texts of the early modern period, the ...


5

If we are speaking of current official spelling systems, I believe that Vietnamese wins the prize. Potential competitors would most likely be a language with a rich vowel system than included independent tone, phonation and nasalization contrast, which points to Ju|'hoansi and !Xóõ, which would have a higher maximum and probably a higher text frequency – if ...


5

Polish has one letter with oblique strike in the middle and two letters with hooks in the right bottom corner. All these have upper and lowercase forms. Ł, ł, Ą, ą, Ę, ę


4

Typically linguists use such diacritics when the sound they're describing is in between the sounds associated with unmodified base glyphs of the IPA. So I would not expect the author to write [ë̞] to represent the same sound as [ə], but rather a sound intermediate between [e] and [ə]


4

One approach to answering this type of question is to query the Unicode Character Database. One of the many useful features of Unicode that is it tracks various properties of each character, some relevant ones being: Is a Mark a Diacritic?, In What Position if any Does the Mark Combine with a Base Character?, What Block of Characters is a Character in?, What ...


4

In Czech, the caron on lowercase letters "t" and "d" is placed to the side rather than directly on top: ť, ď.


4

The diacritic ̯ means "non-syllabic", and it typically used to refer to phonetic situations where a vowel seems to be pronounced as "a glide". You could write the IPA letter [j] as [i̯], but there is a special symbol for non-syllable /i/. There is no special symbol for non-syllabic [e], hence the need to resort to the diacritic in [̯e]. The reason for the ...


4

The easiest way to solve your problem is to create your own keyboard layout (it applies if you use MS Windows, or just google the phrase for other platforms). You can use Latvian keyboard layout as a base, it already has š and vowel letters with macrons (like ā and ū). You'll only have to define the keys for the letters with the under-dot, like ṭ, and for ḫ.


4

Your two examples both show a different kind of process. In German, you remove the diacritics and retain the information that they encode. And you do it in a way that is broadly consistent with the conventions of German orthography for removing diacritics. However, in French, you simply remove the diacritics and any information that may have been encoded ...


3

Everybody has to deal with diacritics, be they phoneticians, syntacticians, or politicians, as long as the language involved is one of the majority of languages that uses diacritics. Diacritics are simply little marks put somewhere near a bigger letter which happens to also be useable without the diacritic. For example, the letter usually refers to the ...


3

A good and official source for IPA letters is here. From it you can learn exactly what each diacritic is called, e.g. ̥ is "voiceless". This also includes illustrative performances of most of the IPA letters, although there is a gap for the vowel-nudging diagritics. To go with that, I suggest Ladefoged & Maddieson The sounds of the world's languages, ...


3

IPA doesn't use the macron below ◌̱. The minus sign below ◌̠ looks basically the same and can be used to indicate a retracted articulation; but this is not necessary in English dictionaries. That means the phonetic transcription of your dictionary or website is probably not IPA. You will find a description of its symbols or ‘phonetic key’ in the introduction,...


3

Yes. In German, the noun Café (cafe, directly borrowed from French café) is written almost exclusively with an accent on the e. It contrats with the word Kaffee, meaning coffee in written language, although they are often pronounced identically. Other words borrowed from French (e.g. Crème fraîche or Creme fraiche) are sometimes written with the appropriate ...


2

The best you can do is "Latin (Roman) letter", referring to the letters used by write Latin – which did not use those diacritics. This excludes all modern inventions like <ŋ ɓ ɔ ʕ>. Or, "base letter". There is no single word. People often say "letter" to mean the things without diacritics, but there is no "technical&...


2

I agree with @drammock and would add this. IPA is really a phonetically-based system of phonological symbolization. When a person write a certain sound of a language as [ɪ] or [e], that is in part a statement about what the vowel sounds like, where [ɪ] or [e] represent approximate targets. There is substantial variation in the formants of [ɪ] or [e] across ...


2

The combining breve below means "non-syllabic" - to contrast with the normal idea of vowels as syllabic (form the nucleus of a syllable). Modern linguists tend to notate parts of a diphthong with a non-syllabic consonant like over an equivalent semivowel like in diphthongs because: 1) some languages do have diphthongs with a semivowel that does not occur ...


2

"Orthography" is simply the rules of writing a language, so it's not particularly distinct from "spelling". If you wanted to draw a line between them, you could say that "spelling" is specifically the sequence of characters making up the word, while "orthography" also encompasses the details of individual characters, so that writing the letter N backwards ...


2

That text uses the old (obsolete) orthography developed by J.G. Christaller about 150 years ago. (t)w̌ represents labio-palatalization, IPA [tɕɥ], which is now simply tw (it's predictable, but was in the old spelling because it's phonetically noteworthy). Akan vowels are a bit challenging since it sounds like they have 3 kinds of mid vowels (ɛ e ɪ but ɪ ...


2

Ozumacín Chinantec has ten vowels (a, ä, e, ë, i, ɨ, o, ø, u, ʉ), which may be nasalized (indicated by an underscore), and nine tones (indicated by ˈ, ˊ, ˉ, ꜗ, ꜘ, ꜙ, ꜚ, ˜, ˋ after the syllable). This results in words such as "läꜙjë̱ë̱ꜙ", "ø̱ø̱hꜗ", or "hä̱ä̱˜". It seems that this beats even Vietnamese.


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