7

There are some factors that make vowels more volatile than consonants in general Consonants have fixed points of articulation and modes of articulation while vowels live in a continuous space In most languages, consonants have a higher surprisal than vowels, i.e., they carry more information So vowels can shift around more freely than consonants. But this ...


6

1) where in the UK is this dialectal usage present? I think mostly in the South-East; Kent, London, etc. 2) what is the origin of this usage? An old usage survived from Middle English for instance? Nope, older forms of English regularly distinguish plural and singular forms in the verb conjugation paradigm. It is the grammaticalisation cycle taking ...


5

I am Slovenian, and here's my perspective: To me, Slovak and Czech languages are very similar - in fact, I wouldn't be able to tell them apart. Among all the Slavic languages, the one that's the easiest to understand for a Slovenian is Croatian language. Not Slovak! Are they mutually intelligible? To which degree? Only to the degree that all Slavic ...


5

Yes, it can. Just going along the mediterranean cost there is a nice chain of dialects from Roman, Tuscan, Ligurian, Provençal, Langedoc, Catalan, Southern Castillian to Portuguese. Maybe there is a break between Southern Castillian and Portuguese and you have to make a detour to the North of Spain via Madrid, Leon (Leonese), and Galicia (Galician) to have ...


5

I don't think there are any ring languages, and I can explain why it's unlikely. Remember that language evolution is only roughly the same as biological evolution, and the line between languages is only roughly the some as the line between species. One big difference is that there just aren't nearly as many living languages as there are extant biological ...


5

For geographical distance, I think a Slavonic dialect continuum from the westernmost dialects of Czech via Slovak, Ruthenian, Ukrainian, Southern Russian, and Russian up to Vladivostok cannot be beaten. Because Slavonic languages are still relatively close to each other, it can probably be beaten in terms of linguistic distance.


4

Abarnert laid out quite nicely the reasons why this doesn't really happen. But you do sometimes get "rings": they're just a whole lot smaller and form for different reasons. In northern Iberia, for example, the local Romance languages form a naturally-evolved dialect continuum from east to west. But in the south, there are hard boundaries between them. This ...


3

A good starting place to look for corpora is the CLARIN Virtual Language Observatory (VLO). This query searches for "spoken arabic" and restricts the results to hits where the language is labelled as "Arabic". At the time of this writing it gives almost 700 hits.


3

Possible, yes, but I don't know an example. But the following comes pretty close to it: The Slavonic languages on the Balkans form a somewhat broken ring, almost encircling the Hungarian and Romanian language area: Going counterclockwise from Ukrainian via Ruthenian and Slovak to (first gap in the ring) Slovene, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian and Bulgarian ...


2

Dialect continuum does not mean necessarily a continuum where there is inter-intelligibility. It is when linguistic facts change in relation to spatial distance, in sum, the linguistic distance has to be proportional to spatial distance. When such observations are noticed, we consider that there is a dialect continuum. There are some works concerning the ...


1

This is intended to refer to the dialects of the bedouin communities of eastern Egypt, the Sinai and the Negev desert. It is most closely related to the bedouin dialects of Jordan and northwestern Saudi Arabia and is the same as what Wikipedia refers to as "Northwestern Arabian Arabic". It is closer to what you would hear in the Jordanian and ...


1

The most obvious common feature of Slovene and Slovak is that they kept the original old name for their ethniques. "Slovo" means "word" in all Slavic (sic!) languages. The old Slavs called themselves "Slověni" and that means those speak a language we understand. The others were "Němci" (the mute) which means "Germans" today (more or less in all slavic ...


1

I am Slovak: I think there are two sides you need to be aware of before you consider whether they are similar; for me reading Slovene makes it and Slovak seem similar and I can manage to understand it enough to see the context and point of conversation. But listening to it? I would say that that is where the "it's not similar" arises. I cannot understand ...


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