11

This is a complex topic but here's an attempt at an answer. My background is in describing and documenting relatively small, endangered languages, so I'll describe how it's done in that situation. I'll assume you have computers, software, internet, native speaking informants, recording equipment, and many years to spend on the work. Firstly, recorded texts ...


10

We can't really determine whether an etymology in a dictionary is "correct" or not since we don't know the ground truth to compare. But the editors of etymological dictionaries have taken a great job in preparing them. You can tell good etymological dictionaries by two features Admitting sometimes that the etymology of a certain word is unclear or ...


9

The English Wiktionary has lots of Latin entries, and of those many have etymologies. If you find one that lacks an etymology and you'd really like to see it added, it's a little-known fact that you can request it. Click the edit link on the page, if it's a page with entries for several words in various languages that happen to share a spelling, then click ...


9

Unfortunately, most of the resources are behind a paywall. For example, The Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Online database (by Brill) already includes eleven dictionaries, including de Vaan's Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages.


8

More recent etymological dictionaries have been published, but generally by different people with different names. Ernout, for example, died in 1973, so I'm not surprised he hasn't updated his Latin dictionary since then. Instead, other authors have published more recent etymological dictionaries, such as de Vaan 2011. That's now become a standard reference ...


7

First of all, I assume that with “largest dictionary” you mean the dictionary with the largest number of entries (lemmas), not the one that fills the largest number of pages. In this form, the question probably cannot be answered, given the fact that different languages have different systems of lemmatisation. To begin with, Wiktionary includes proper ...


6

IPA is only a set of symbols and approximate phonetic values, and there is no mandate to transcribe English words any particular way. The variants [eə, ɛə, ɛə̯, ɛː] are all within IPA, and the labeling of [ɛə̯] as "strict IPA" is a misnomer: There is no such thing as "strict IPA", there is IPA, or not IPA (as in traditional dictionary "trän-SKRIP-shun"). It ...


6

This question is very important and possible to answer empirically, however, words and concepts do not map 1:1 across languages so the mentioned assumption that bilingual dictionaries will have a great impact is speculative. Relative to what we might expect based on economic factors and inherent difficulty, machine translation quality lags for: English to ...


6

That answer on Spanish SE is misleading on key points - "neural networks" have nothing to do with dictionaries. Let's step back and imagine that we are tasked with creating bilingual dictionaries for many language pairs. To start, we have human-compiled ones, either from processing Wiktionary entries' Translations sections, or purchased from companies ...


6

Here in Mackenzie’s dictionary verbs are normally cited in the infinitive form, but if (as in this case) the infinitive is not attested, the dictionary quotes the present stem followed by a hyphen. So bēšāz(ēn)- means that the present stem of this verb can be either bēšāzēn- or just bēšāz-. “M” introduces the spelling in Manichaean script. You might find ...


5

Good up-to-date dictionaries are under copyright and not on line. I suggest you get a reader's ticket at a well stocked university library.


5

The main problem is that most words cannot be translated one to one. For simple, concrete words like fire, it's less of a problem. But consider a word like up. It has many different senses that would all need to be translated into different words in those other languages: it can mean "upwards", "finished", etc. Or consider a word like certainly. It can mean "...


5

If you have access to a good library you can consult von Wartburg's Französisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch in 25 volumes. There is also an abridged French translation.


5

Yes there are. There are several choices: Wiktionary Filter the entries by category language to generate language specific word lists. Lots of additional information (POS, inflection, meanings, translations) are available Wortschatz (Uni Leipzig), a CLARIN resource, provides corpora in 200 languages. You can download corpora for the language you are ...


5

παλαιότερα is not "more ancient use", but "older". And that's significant: it can refer to an older Demotic form which is now obsolete. In fact, it is far likelier to be Demotic than Katharevousa. Learnèd forms (λόγιος) are indeed forms that (re-)entered Greek via Katharevousa, but have been accepted into Standard Modern Greek. αρχαιοπρεπής (archaic) is ...


5

Two resources are particularly popular. WordNet Wiktionary


5

I'm going to describe the situation in Modern Greek. In Modern Greek, you will get good etymologies in the the contemporary dictionaries, Babiniotis' and Triantafyllidis', both of which date from the 90s. The current etymologist of the former, Moysiadis, has written a textbook on etymology; the original etymologist of the latter, Petrounias, has written ...


4

Vocabulary.com's senses (and entries) are generally the same as WordNet's: compare with sound at wordnet.princeton.edu. Vocabulary.com has clearly done some filtering to make the entries less Weirdnet: note that there's no example sentence for "the audible part of a transmitted signal", which in WordNet is exemplified by "they always raise the audio for ...


4

The Natural Semantic Metalanguage is a controversial approach to semantics. The idea is that there is a limited set of semantic primes which are themselves undefinable and also universal. But with that set of primes, every other meaning can be defined/explicated. Conveniently, someone has already made an NSM definition for friend! These definitions are ...


4

Chinese dictionaries have arranged characters according to radicals for several centuries, then sorting on next level according to number of strokes. Works when you're looking for the meaning or pronunciation of a character you just saw. Some dictionaries and encyclopedias also attempted sorting by "theme": animals, plants, metals, etc. Of course, works only ...


4

The Indo-European Lexicon out of UT-Austin will give you the Proto Indo-European root for many Latin words. That would be at least a partial solution. Here is the main page, and the page for Latin.


4

The Littré is available online free of charge. It is old (1877) but can provide some interesting etymological insights Example:


4

Wiktionary has etymology entries going back to Old French, Latin, and Proto-Indo-European (PIE), e.g., https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/bleu#Etymology.


4

I don't know that there is a standard -- there could be one. I would favor using the default sorting algorithm, on the grounds that this is what users who look things up a lot will be most familiar with. Donald Knuth's Searching and Sorting is available on line.


4

There is no unique standard for the form of citations, either in linguistics, or in general. The journal (etc.) that you are submitting to has it's own citation style. Since this is apparently an online archive, that is especially up to the journal, but typically requires supplying a permanent URL and an access date (i.e. you are using which version?). Since ...


4

Sumerian and Egyptian are the two languages we have the oldest understandable written texts from. Which one counts as "older" is a difficult question to answer, because we can't make dictionaries based on just the oldest attested artifact for each—a lot of the information needed to really document the language comes from much later sources. ...


3

I don't know how "comprehensive" it is, but the Portal da Língua Portuguesa has a phonetic dictionary that seems to do a pretty good job. An interesting feature of it is that you can change the dialect, choosing among dialects from Portugal, Brazil, Africa and East Timor.


3

(Comm. Wiki because it's not an answer but a wordy comment, sorry) What you're trying to do is called sentence generator. Googling for this phrase shows up quite a few ready-made services on the Internet. Some of them are open-source, developed on a variety of platforms, programming languages, and libraries; some are using freeware word corpus. Instead of ...


3

I usually use different dictionaries when I want to know the intricacies of a word, as I have not yet found a perfect one. My first stop is usually on Wiktionary. The Greek one has much more entries than the English one (for Greek words) but a lot of them lacks definitions or are just declination of a lemma. I'll sometimes take a look at Wordreference.com, ...


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