6

Here are the number of times that each possessive pronoun appeared at the end of each sentence in the British National Corpus per million words: spoken fiction magazine newspaper non-acad academic misc hers 3.41 37.97 1.79 1.62 0.67 0.98 1.39 his 6.62 39.47 3.03 3.63 1.64 ...


5

In Latin, when part of a constituent "jumps over" an intervening word or phrase, as in your example, this is called hyperbaton. It is common in poetry, nor rare in rhetorical prose. It is considered to be a figure of speech, so it is supposed to have stylistic qualities; it is not the normal word order. In poetry, hyperbaton is also often used ...


5

The answer by Tim Osborne is very comprehensive and accurate. But perhaps things might be easier when looked at through usage in text linguistics. Although, co-reference and anaphora can be distinct, they are often used interchangeably by linguists. This is partly because by far the most studied type of anaphoric reference is co-referential. So you could ...


5

Concerning discourse markers: Maynard, Senko (1993) "Discourse modality: Subjectivity, emotion and voice in the Japanese language" (John Benjamins Publishing Company) is seminal work. Newer work can be found in Onodera, Noriko O. (2004): Japanese Discourse Markers: Synchronic and Diachronic Discourse Analysis (John Benjamins Publishing). Check out the ...


4

User6726 is absolutely correct, but to expand a little bit: The "more to follow" idea comes from Gricean implicature, not from the words themselves. Grice's Maxims are four rules that people "expect" everyone in a conversation to follow. One is the maxim of relevance: if you're saying something, you're saying it for a reason, so it should be relevant to ...


3

Locutionary and illocutionary verbs are not a thing, as far as I know. Locutionary and illocutionary acts on the other hand are well known to me and to others as well. I think an example will help you here. In my Semantics course a third speech act facet was presented as well, though. It is called perlocution and refers to the effect of an utterance on the ...


3

First, automated summarization is indeed a task in computational linguistics, although I suspect (I'm not really close to that particular field) that they employ some neural networks now and no longer a rule-based system as sketched in the question. The sketch in the question also touches another important task in computational linguistics and natural ...


2

I think you're referring to what is known in social sciences as a high-context culture, a concept put forth by Edward Hall in the 1970s. Hall considered some cultures to be "lower-context", i.e. requiring more explicit information in communication, than others, but this model has been criticized as lacking empirical evidence (Cardon 2008). The model of high-...


2

Coreference anaphora is just one type of anaphora. Following George Lakoff, syntacticians distinguish between identity-of-reference anaphora (which includes definite pronominalization) and identity-of-sense anaphora (which includes indefinite anaphora with "one"). So as a first approximation, the answer to the question is that anaphora includes indefinite ...


2

Two common mechanisms are: Choice of tense, other than the perfect. Romance languages often use their imperfective past tense for narrative background and their perfective past tense (e.g. French passé composé or Spanish simple past) for narrative foreground. Suzanne Fleischmann wrote an excellent book about this. Main vs. subordinate clauses. There's a ...


2

The question is difficult to answer due to its brevity and the lack of context in which the terms coreference and anaphora appear. However, I can provide some orientation that should help increase understanding of how these terms are used. The term coreference denotes a situation where two or more expressions refer to the same one entity in the world of ...


2

If you do mean to refer to Grice's Maxim of Relevance, and the examples suggest you do, then you must understand that, unlike other maxims, it's impossible to violate the Relevance Maxim. This is because Relevance is under the control of the addressee, not the speaker. No matter what the speaker may intend, the relevance of an utterance to a discourse is ...


2

These words are nouns. The effect you're referring to doesn't come from those words. For example "That's why I rejected that idea", "I accepted his example", "As you know, Dr. Seuss wrote about two things". You can create an expectation of "more to come" by not saying enough.


1

This one was just released a couple months ago and is available for download. https://github.com/synapse-developpement/Discovery If the anaphoric references are not to your liking, run the Hugging Face Neural CoRef classifier over the dataset. https://huggingface.co/coref/


1

The SPAADIA, OASIS, and Switchboard corpora might interest you.


1

I'd take a look at 'dialog acts' rather than general purpose discourse functions. This is a good place to start: https://dialogbank.uvt.nl/wp-content/uploads/tdb/2015/12/DialogBank-LRE-v8.pdf It references the ISO 24617-2 standard which captures intents like Accept Apology, Thanking, Accept Thanking, Init-Goodbye, and much more. The following paper ...


1

I don't think there is such a thing as "egoistical emotion" that can be detected. A huge part of the problem here is confusion between "egoistical" and "egotistical". All of your existing examples are looking to detect whether someone things/feels/etc. that she's superior to other people. That's a sign of egotism.1 Egoism is a tendency to act selfishly, or ...


1

GT is SRILM's default. In fact, I think using -addsmooth 0 just gives you default GT smoothing (unfortunately?). To directly use GT discounting, simply include no discounting argument. The number at the end of the discount argument (-kndiscount1, etc.) is the n-gram order to apply that discounting method to. Using -kndiscount alone tells ngram-count to use ...


1

The subdomains of discourse analysis, dialogics (Bakhtin), and the study of narrative discourse markers (Labov & Waletzky) may be of interest. There is significant literature on this topic, so you can start by googling some of the concepts above.


1

For lists of the linguistic terms with their short explanation see these links: General linguistics terms - terms are grouped according to the field of linguistics, downloadable variant available. Small glossary of linguistics - terms are grouped according to the field of linguistics. Glossary of linguistic terms - terms are listed alphabetically. Also ...


1

This is not an authoritative answer. But, I'm not sure one exists. I'd never heard a neutral term for it, but I like your suggestion. It looks like people could almost use 'retelling error' (http://cdp.sagepub.com/content/16/1/16.abstract), but haven't. I think it's a good candidate, though: 'retelling' seems to be the most precise term for what you ...


1

I don't understand the relationship between the part of your question concerning economy of code lines and special words like "always", but it's possible you can find something of interest in the philosophy of Nelson Goodman, because Goodman dealt with both those matters. The evaluation metric in linguistic theory, proposed in Chomsky and Halle's The Sound ...


1

A good starting point for the search for such kind of resources is the CLARIN Virtual Language Observatory (VLO). Alas, a naive search for "classroom transcript" gives only five hits at the time of this writing, and all the resources seem to be under some non-free licence. Try some variation in the search terms to find a suitable transcript.


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