8

The reason is no doubt that, as in many other languages, the complementizer/conjunction introducing indirect speech comes from a neuter relative pronoun. The archaic/hypothetical construction was "I tell you that, that happened..." (meaning "I tell you that, which happened"), or "I tell you, what happened...". This neuter ...


4

If with "recently" he really means the time of Aristotle, or even that of Cicero, then yes, he is a crank. The very first sentence in both the Iliad and Odyssey contains an embedded relative clause. To say nothing of Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian ... Iliad: μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί᾽ Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε᾽ ἔθηκε, Odyssey: ἄνδρα μοι ...


4

From what I read, there is no linguistic demonstration given by the author. To reconstruct the history of a language, you have two solutions: having historical writing traces or making a comparative-historical linguistics study. Both are possible in Indo-european languages. All indoeuropeanists agree that the proto Indo-european language had a relative ...


3

First, your question at the end doesn't really make sense, because conjunction is not subordination. I think you're asking for languages without subordination, so you shouldn't add "or conjunctions". So to what I think is your actual question: Are there languages without subordination? Pirahã is claimed to be such a language. And of course your Latin ...


2

I recommend that you read this article by Ling et al: @Conference{Lingetal2015, Author = {Wang Ling and Chris Dyer and Alan Black and Isabel Trancoso}, Title = {Two/too simple adaptations of word2vec for syntax problems}, Booktitle = {Proceedings of NAACL}, Year = {2015}, } It contains a guidance on doing word embeddings properly.


2

It turns out that this type of embedding is discussed (and marked with #: semantically or pragmatically anomalous) in Huddleston & Pullum's CGEL in the section called 'Processing factors', pp 1405-6. Also, Pullum tells me that such examples are never found. "Fred Householder asserted in a couple of book reviews in Language that English has a surface ...


2

What Lehmann is talking about is Hale's famous 1976 paper about the adjoined relative clause in Australia. It discusses (subordinate) relative clauses not being embedded, which spawned the opinion that there is no subordination in Australian languages (because for most 'subordination' and 'embedding' are synonimous indeed). In fact, Hale meant something like ...


2

Apparently, all languages signed or spoken have some form of syntactic subordination. However, languages differ significantly in the types of subordinata constructions present, in how heavily they use subordination and for what functions. For instance, it has been noted that subordination is often weakly developed in polysynthetic languages. So in some ...


2

I take the word "appear" literally, that is, it's a question about the evidence. Almost all of the publicly available evidence comes from Everett. You can consult the other works on listed Glottolog (please only consult those where it is probable that the author personally worked with speakers of the language); you can also consult Everett's thesis from 1983,...


1

Well, compare TG ( Transformational Grammar) and GPSG (Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar). TG allows the formulation of rules that perform long distance movement, using the variables of a transformation to stand for arbitrarily long strings of parts of a "proper analysis". For your example, a variable X of the WH movement transformation represents "John ...


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