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6

I will start answering to flush out the semantics described according to my sense of American English. In "1. I have to go now, my Uber driver has arrived," the possessive is normally required and is a compact way of saying "the Uber driver that is coming to pick me up has arrived." If the context is absolutely clear, it is acceptable to ...


5

One way to describe consonants is in terms of their physical production, another is in terms of their abstract algebraic function. Unfortunately, there is a tendency to impute physical meanings to abstract terms like "tense" and "lax". The terms "tense" and "lax" are generally only used to describe vowels, specifically ...


4

There is a standard West Frisian (which is taught in schools and used in local government and media and for books and magazines). I'm fluent in it (and my personal dialect doesn't vary a lot from it). For the record. Saterlandic Frisian only has minor variations among the villages where it's spoken and one of the village dialects is used for the dictionary (...


2

Some languages do use noun cases for what would be prepositions in English, such as Finnish. If this is what you mean by "noun modifiers", yes, it's fairly common. But from a syntactic point of view, you might want to look into the concept of a "head". The idea is that every phrase (unit of syntax) contains some word that determines how ...


1

OK, this question opens a wide field, namely the study of translationese or the language produced by translators. There is a list of postulated features of translationese (like normalization, convergence, and shining-through, cf. e.g. this paper by Bizzoni and Lapshinova-Koltunski or this one by Volansky, Ordan, and Wintner) that can be studied using corpora ...


1

No one can tell you what construction means without some context. It's a very common word in syntax and generally refers to sentence constituents that may be more than one word. That's not very helpful. However, inchoative (pronounced in KOE a tiv) has a very specific meaning -- Change of State. Which means beginnings, endings, and changes of all sorts; a ...


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