40

They are distinct. Definitions False cognates are words that are similar in their modern forms despite having different etymologies. This is regardless of whether the modern meanings are similar. False friends are words that are similar in their modern forms despite having different modern meanings. This is regardless of whether the words are ...


31

Actually, “autarky” and “autarchy” are two different words. The former means “self-sufficiency” and comes from the Greek arkein “to suffice”. The latter means “absolute rule” and comes from Greek arkhē “rule”. They are pronounced the same in English, but not in Greek.


26

First of all I would like to say that these words are not cognates; they are loanwords. The coffee plant is indigenous in the highlands of Ethiopia. It was transplanted to the Yemen in the 14th century (which is fairly recent), where the drink coffee became popular among Sufi circles, and was soon after exported to Istanbul, and hence to Europe. For a long ...


25

In Korean, 오른쪽 wolunccwok "right (direction)" comes from 옳- wolh- "correct" + -은 -un (Attributive) + 쪽 ccwok "direction", literally meaning "the correct direction". Another word for "right side", 바른편 palunphyen, literally means "The correct side" as well. Similarly, 왼쪽 oynccwok "left (direction)" comes from 외- oy- "crooked" + -ㄴ -n (Attributive) + 쪽 ccwok "...


25

Gin is abbreviation from genever, originally Dutch, where the word means "juniper". The original drink was made from fermented juniper berries in the Netherlands. The word genever (juniper) derives from Latin iūniperus via its French version genevre. Geneva is ultimately from Latin Genāva, with the etymology you pointed, and unrelated to ...


22

All etymological dictionaries (Walde, Meillet) say that uncia is derived from Proto-Indo-European *oi-nos, "one", the same stem as Latin unus, "one", and English one/an. (This stem at some point replaced in many languages the older stem used for "one", sem-, as reflected in English (through Latin) simple, single, simultaneous, etc.) Walde on uncia suggests ...


22

New High German (NHG) Auge and English eye are believed to descend from Proto-Germanic *augan- and Proto-Indo-European *ōkū-. NHG Ei and English egg are from PG *ajjam- and PIE *ōiom. These words are not related. The homophony of modern English eye with modern German Ei is accidental. There is no “weird flipping".


22

"Eight" comes from Proto-Indo-European oḱtou and "night" comes from nokʷts, so there is some similarity in the historically earlier forms. Due to ordinary sound changes into Italic and Germanic, you find similarities in the daughter languages, which explains the similarities of these words. But 'similar' is different from 'identical', and there is no special ...


21

The numbers are specific to Proto-Indo-European. Scholars aren't sure how PIE was pronounced: after all, there are no native speakers around now, or records from the time. All of the sounds in reconstructed words are educated guesses at best. Some sounds were fairly easy to guess. For instance, there was a sound that seems to have become /t/ in most of PIE's ...


18

In Arabic the word for “human being of either sex” is ʼinsān, from the same root as nisāʼ “women”. The usual word for “male human being” is rajul.


18

Etymology was the term used for both concepts up to the early 20th century. Then de Saussure postulated the incompatibility of diachrony and synchrony and nothing was ever the same again. Etymology is a study of the history of words' form and/or meaning, and history implies diachrony. Thus, the word lord comes from Old English hlafweard "one who guards the ...


18

It's just a coincidence. The Hebrew and Arabic words come from a root B-W-R "to lie fallow"; compare the Arabic verbs بَوَّرَ (bawwara) and بَارَ (baara). The metaphor of "thoughts = crops" isn't an uncommon one, so if someone isn't having any thoughts, their mind is metaphorically lying fallow. The English word is borrowed from Dutch (...


17

Just a set of words, or is there also a reconstructed grammar letting us speak in Common Proto-European? Absolutely! In fact, one of the best ways to show that a language is Indo-European is through its grammar—words are easy to borrow, swaths of morphology, not so much. The Hittite words wādar "water" and ēd- "eat" were a good clue that the language was IE,...


17

Indeed, the Ancient Greek word εὕρηκα would be transcribed heurēka, with an H. The mark that looks like an apostrophe (the "rough breathing" or "spiritus asper") indicates the H sound. However, the word came to English through Latin, which is why it's pronounced with the accent on the second syllable instead of the first (as in Greek). ...


16

One thing to remember about English spelling is that for the most part it is "frozen", and reflects the Middle English pronunciation. Another thing to remember is that there has never been a standardized spelling for English, and individual judgment, errors, and a variety of dialects have played a large role in how words are spelled. So every question about ...


16

You should not confuse the two terms: The Cossacks: are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who became known as members of democratic, semi-military and semi-naval communities,[1] predominantly located in Ukraine and in Southern Russia. The Kazakhs: are a Turkic people of Eastern Europe and the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but ...


15

Yes, Germanic angst and Latin anxiety are derived from the same Proto-Indo-European root, which was something like *h₂enǵʰ- "constrict, narrow". Philippa (2003-2009) confirm that they are cognates: under angst they say, "see eng"; under eng they say that the word is related to Latin ango and they give the Proto-Indo-European root as above. Also related is ...


15

It must be remembered that in the Japanese language system, the lexeme's sound and the lexeme's spelling are much less correlated with each other than even in Chinese; the phenomenon of 訓読み kun'yomi means that one lexeme can be written with several different spellings (even if the spellings overlap in meaning). The most well known example for beginners is あう ...


15

It exists in semitic languages. "ymn" has directional right as its radical sense in the Ethiopian semitic languages but is also commonly used for good news, e.g., Yemane is a common name there, like Yaman in arabic languages. (I had always assumed the country name Yemen drew from the same root but Wikipedia claims that is just folk etymology: "One etymology ...


14

In Latin, there was total regressive assimilation in a combination of an occlusive (Verschlusslaut) followed by f: OCC+f> -ff- Examples: affero < *at-fero < *ad-fero (recomposition also possible - adfero) offero < *op-fero (recomposition also possible - obfero) effero < ec-fero (recomposition also possible - ecfero) cf. Weiss 2009/2011: ...


14

Besides the fact that Londres and so on originate from Latin Londinium, I unfortunately have not been able to find any dictionary entry that explains the etymology of this word and the sound changes that occurred. However, I did find a post on the Wordorigins Discussion Forum archive that gives some information: It's a regular sound change in Old ...


14

The main problem with these particular reconstructions is that the author of "etymonline" does not use diacritics. In fact, there is a very significant difference between *g and *ǵ (they develop differently in the “kentum” and “satem” languages), and also between *a and *ā (or, if you prefer, *h₂e and *eh₂). The reconstructions in “etymonline” are wrong, ...


14

The prefix δυ- is from δύω “two” < IE *duō. The prefix δι- is from δίς “twice” < IE *dwi- (the /w/ is lost in Greek). Both are common in Greek. By the way: “division” is from Latin, not Greek. There are lots of English words beginning with dyo- and dy-. I suggest you flick through any English dictionary.


13

There was the agent suffix -ter- of PIE. It was used for creation of terms for relatives and for creation of agent nouns. Suffix -ter- was used to create a noun for person whose function or profession was to perform the action (irrespective whether he actually did it) while the o-grade of it -tor- was used to denote a person who just did the action. The ...


13

In the monumental Old Turkic Dictionary ("Древнетюркский словарь", Наука, Л., 1969) it is written that Kent/Kənd is really of the Sogdian origin. The dictionary reflects the words found in the Turkic written records of the 7th - 13th centuries. The word Kent is not there, but the word Kend redirects to Känd, to page 290, and here is the screenshot of the ...


13

Homonyms originate in basically one of two ways. Either they have different origins, and sound the same simply by coincidence - either a sound change resulted in two previously distinct words sounding the same, or a foreign word was borrowed that happened to sound like an existing word - or else the two words began as variant meanings of the same word (also ...


13

Yes, a few: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:Ancient_Greek_terms_derived_from_Sumerian They were mostly borrowed via Akkadian, and into other major classical languages of the Eastern Mediterranean beside Ancient Greek - Aramaic, Armenian, Persian, Hebrew... English cane would seem to share such an etymology. Another wave of ultimately Sumerian ...


13

I'm the author of that article. So the piece actually says "many", not most. You can check the book for examples. This is even true in some languages I've done field work on. (And btw I'm a Professor of anthropolical/cognitive linguistics--my PhD is in linguistics.) All the best, Caleb


13

Very unlikely! While the phonetic similarities are real, the old Norse name of the weekday etymologically goes back to Frig's day, and not Freyja's day. The actual form of the Norse word is somewhat blurred by a possible early loan from Old Saxon (or some other such west Germanic language) into the attested Norse frjádagʀ. This form is very likely from ...


12

dušman and δυσμενής are Indo-European cognates. The Persian word comes from Old Iranian *duš-manyu- (cf Avestan dušmanah-), “whose mind is bad”. The Punjabi word (also Hindi, Urdu etc.) is a borrowing from Persian.


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