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In a project that produced a corpus of (spoken) Nigerian English we used HES for hesitation. I've also come across HES in articles in linguistics journals, but not FILL.


I would say that filler words are one sort of discourse marker, but the former term is less well defined and less consistently used than the latter. The sense that I consider most central is epitomized in English by "um" or "like": a sound that indicates that the speaker is not currently emitting content, but will presently do so, and wishes to retain the ...


Discourse markers are really just a catch all term for all the different lexical ways of making text (discourse) hold together beyond the level of the clause. As all linguistic categories (including nouns and verbs) the discourse marker category has fuzzy boundaries and is subject to prototype effects, family resemblances (and the like) - sort of like Lakoff'...

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