How about აფალინა /apʰalina/? the Black Sea bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ponticus)?
It is/used to be common in the Black Sea and has a similar name in (all?) languages bordering on the Black sea: afalina (Turkish), афала (Bulgarian), afalin (Romanian), афаліна (Ukranian), афалина (Russian).
The word აფალინა /aphalina/ is a word of Greek origin, derived from φάλλαινα, "whale". This word came from Greek φαλλός which in late Greek meant "penis" due to similar shape of the whale. This word in turn came from PIE root bhel- "to swell, blow".
The two languages have a similar set of sounds, and both have even intonation. But:
Armenian has two r, one of which is soft, Georgian r is always the hard one.
Armenian has k and q but no qʼ.
Georgian words often end in -o, in Armenian it is rare at the end of a word or sentence, other than nicknames.
Certain vowel combinations like -au- and -eu- are ...
Here you go. Note also, that all these six words differ only in the first consonant, so they can be used to form a minimal pair for any two of the six consonants you are interested in. The language is Georgian.
ფარი - /pari/ - shield
პარი - /p'ari/ - parry (a fencing term)
თარი - /tari/ - tar (a long-necked, waisted lute)
ტარი - /t'ari/ - ...
This doesn't exactly answer your question, but they're close enough that ყ is often used for ﻕ in Georgian words of Arabic origin. For example:
قرآن - ყურანი (Quran)
قصاب - ყასაბი (butcher)
قهوة - ყავა (coffee)
حقنة - ოყნა (enema)
عراق - ერაყი (Iraq)
However, there are some counterexamples:
خلق - ხალხი (people)
القاعدة - ალ-კაიდა (Al-Qaeda)
My guess is ...
As a native-speaker I can provide only non-scientific explanations to your questions, but still it may be useful.
So, is there any difference between the sentence in (1) and the one in (4) from the semantic point of view?
The difference is that in (1) "I am writing a letter to mother" which literally means that I am a sender and mother is a receiver of ...
There are indeed Georgian verbs that have a root starting with ა, ე, ი or უ. Here is an example for each vowel: არსებობს/იარსებებს (X exists/will exist), ელავს/იელ(ვ)ებს (there is/will be lightning), აიარაღებს/შეაიარაღებს (X arms/will arm Y), აუმჯობესებს/გააუმჯობესებს (X improves/will improve Y).
Interestingly enough though, it is my impression that most ...
Armenian (at least Western Armenian) seems to place stress mainly on the final syllable. From the little I've read about Georgian, it seems to prefer penultimate stress. Overall, Armenian sounds much more "lilting" when spoken than the Georgian I've heard in various video clips (and more lilting than standard English, for that matter).
Also, I think that ...
The second part is certainly from Arabic qalʿa, a word loaned all over the Orient.
The first part may be from a given name. Armenian has Նարին Narin and Turkish has Narin, both from Persian نارین nārīn ‘fresh, shining, clear, polished, elegant, adorned’. Or directly from the Persian appellative.
Aronson (1990) gives the following rules for stress-assignment in Georgian:
less than 4 syllables in word -> stress on 1st OR antepenultimate syllable
5 or more syllables in word -> stress on 1st AND antepenultimate syllables
Robins & Waterson (1952) give an alternative, less compact (but perhaps more readable) set of rules:
2 syllables -> ...
There is a PhD dissertation by Marika Butskhrikidze where this issue was tested (see pp. 123-132 [137-146 in the PDF]). Basically, her results are:
1) Most harmonic clusters are in fact produced with two releases.
2) Based on a perception experiment, "harmonic Cc clusters behave as single consonants in terms of hit rate, but as a sequence of two unrelated ...
-ედ (or perhaps we should just say -დ) is the normal adverbial ending for noun or adjective stems ending in ე. So you have the following forms:
წიგნ-ი > წიგნ-ად
დედა > დედა-დ
მეპურე > მეპურე-დ
გოგო > გოგო-დ
ყრუ > ყრუ-დ
here should also be included the rare i stem nouns such as the example Tschenkeli gives: ტრამვაი > ...
This feature or lack thereof is common enough across language families. Besides Hungarian, Turkish and Georgian, it also occurs in Armenian, Persian and apparently Hindi, which are of course Indo-European.
But questions about popularity are very subjective as it requires us to decide what is a language and how to weight each language, for example ...
Even if you uppercase something you still need to support your claim with some proof, because otherwise one can come up with a refutation similar in it's nature, like this one:
No, it DOES have something to do with Ashkenazi.
See, it's not that convincing per se, so I'll provide some explanation.
Jews have a long-documented history of adopting same name ...
In most Berber languages (In Riffian, a numeral does not agree with a noun), agreement for numerals concerns the number and the gender. The noun agrees in number with the numeral and, inversely, the numeral agrees in gender with the noun. An example from Kabyle:
yiwen n wergaz
one GEN man
sen n yirgazen
two GEN men
sen-t n tillawin
Questions about there being "many languages" with some property are basically unanswerable since there's no contextually reasonable number that constitutes "many". Anyhow, there are quite a number of languages with VV and VVV -- basically, you just need a language that doesn't particularly care about vowel sequences. You also find CV.VV in languages such as ...
Since you are asking about languages of the Caucasus in general you might also want to know that Ossetic has five ejective stops (written пъ, тъ, къ, цъ, чъ), but they are marginal, occur only in loan words or words of unknown etymology, and do not constitute minimal pairs with п, т, к, ц, ч.
It is perhaps worth thinking separately about I. preverbs used with verbs of motion, and II. preverbs used with other verbs.
I. For verbs of motion, the preverb has a strictly lexical function: it shows which direction the motion takes place. For სვლა, change in tense is shown by using a different stem, so, for example, in მოდის (X comes) and მოვა (X will ...
"the Georgian letter ყ is difficult for most Westerners to pronounce. It is similar to the Arabic "qaf" (ﻕ)"
I speak Arabic and Georgian (elementary). some have said "ﻕ" have the same sound as 'q" whereas "ყ" has the sound of " q' ".
but that is incorrect, since the sound of "ﻕ" has no equivalent in English or any Indo-European languages, and that goes ...