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You're asking a number of different questions here, that range from simple description of surface features to theory-internal ideas from specific frameworks (and asking about two different frameworks), so I think you may want more of an overview rather than direct answers to your specific question. If you don't want to read a textbook, the Wikipedia ...


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TL;DR: In the Government and Binding framework, D-structure had to be built completely before any movement could occur, while in Minimalism movement occurs as the structure is being built, eliminating the need for a D-structure. In GB syntactic representations are built in two stages: 1) D-structure is generated according to the rules of X-bar syntax, 2) ...


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The short, oversimplified answer is that Berber languages merge their "oblique" and "nominative" in much the same way that English merges its "oblique" and "accusative". Plenty of other languages do something similar, like most of the Northwest Caucasian languages. There's nothing magical about oblique and accusative that forces them to be merged when coming ...


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