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7 votes
Accepted

How to make a reference grammar of colloquial forms of a language?

No, there is no easy way to make a reference grammar of a "colloquial" language, in fact I think that it is impossible to do so, but you could dial back your aspirations and write "a ...
user6726's user avatar
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5 votes

What is one-place predicate and two-place predicate?

A predicate is an expression that expresses a property of or relation between individuals, i.e. something that evaluates to true or false if you combine it with an appropriate number of individuals. ...
Natalie Clarius's user avatar
5 votes

Acceptability and grammaticality

"Acceptability" is about speaker judgments of utterances, whether they "accept" a stimulus. "Grammaticality" is not about speakers, it is about the abstract grammar that ...
user6726's user avatar
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4 votes

What is the name for the phenomenon where an English verb that takes a clausal complement either does or does not mark the infinitive with "to"?

It's called subcategorization: particular words (not just verbs) allow or require particular words or structures for their arguments. There may be some heuristics for determining the allowable ...
Colin Fine's user avatar
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4 votes

Are there two senses of "grammar" with respect to semantics?

You could say that there are myriad senses of grammar. For example, even here, some people speak of "grammar" as referring to syntax. Since syntax has connections to morphology, it can also ...
user6726's user avatar
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4 votes

Why do languages seem to lose the dual number in particular?

I agree with the other answer but want to add two things. First, this is part of Greenberg's universal 34: No language has a trial number unless it has a dual. No language has a dual unless it has a ...
Keelan's user avatar
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3 votes
Accepted

16 Genders of the Kivunjo Language?

While I don't know Kivunjo specifically, in most Bantu languages, the noun genders/noun classes tend not to have clear interpretations. Even in languages with fewer than 16 genders, the gender doesn't ...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes

Can one word form a phrase?

In Generative Syntax, specifically "X-bar theory", a phrase is (or was) defined as the "maximal projection" of a category feature. The idea is that a word which takes a complement ...
Alazon's user avatar
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3 votes

Are there two senses of "grammar" with respect to semantics?

There are indeed different senses of "grammar". In the scientific (linguistic) sense, it has a broader meaning than in everyday language. Grammar in the broader sense is any system of rules ...
Alazon's user avatar
  • 825
3 votes

Why do languages seem to lose the dual number in particular?

It's simply less salient than the others. If you're going to reduce your stock of numbers from three to two, you'll end up talking about one thing or many things more often than you talk about two ...
Draconis's user avatar
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3 votes
Accepted

Question about a phrase with the Polish case genetive (dopełniacz)

Do is found in all the Slavic languages as a preposition with the meanings “[up] to” and “before”. In all the Slavic languages which have cases, this preposition governs only the genitive case, so it'...
Yellow Sky's user avatar
2 votes

Is there a formal system in Linguistics like Boolean algebra to reduce the grammar rules of a language to minimum items ignoring semantics?

There are various such systems. You could start with the systems of The sound pattern of English and Aspects of the theory of syntax, because they were widely used and have learnable formalisms. A ...
user6726's user avatar
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2 votes

How to make a reference grammar of colloquial forms of a language?

Perhaps (as already hinted) by compiling a reasonably representative corpus of the variety you are after. If you want just the grammar, you do not even need a phote[tm]ic transcription, but an ...
Radovan Garabík's user avatar
2 votes

What does this quote by Chomsky mean?

I suppose the first question is, what do you mean by "mean"? I assume you are asking about his communicative intent in the text, which part of a talk given at Loyola University (Chicago), ...
user6726's user avatar
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2 votes
Accepted

How many grammatical cases does Telugu have?

For Telugu, due to agglutination, the line between postpositions and case-affixes is blurred to the point where it's useless to count how many cases there are. The 8 number comes from trying to map ...
user42056's user avatar
2 votes

All the ways you can describe a relationship outside of nouns/verbs/adjectives across languages (i.e. like with prepositions)?

Any request for "all the ways any relation can be expressed" is, IMO, an unfillable order. We could narrow it down a bit. In English we have a preposition "from" that conveys [...
user6726's user avatar
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2 votes

Is there a reason why certain verbs use certain cases?

Cases, like prepositions, are somewhat arbitrary. One proof of this is that they vary within a language and over time. will this in turn result in that speakers of language A will have a slightly ...
Adam Bittlingmayer's user avatar
2 votes

What part of speech is "CQ"?

Expanding my comments in an answer: The fact that the language of ham operators is to some extent standardized does not prevent us from analyzing it, especially since it is clearly rooted in natural ...
Keelan's user avatar
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2 votes

Third-person singular used for emphasis in online communication -- Why?

In IRC (and I imagine other early text-based messaging services), someone's online handle would usually appear immediately to the left of their message. So a message like "winks at you" ...
Draconis's user avatar
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1 vote

Coreferentiality of relative pronoun and its antecedent explanation

This is a bit obfuscated in English, where we move relative pronouns to the front of their clauses, but consider what role the "whom" is playing in the sentence—it's the direct object of &...
Draconis's user avatar
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1 vote

Defining an 'unexpressed antecedent'?

Linguistics does not use the terms "expressed antecedent" and "unexpressed antecedent", that is terminology of composition classes. However, we do deal with "co-reference"...
user6726's user avatar
  • 82.9k
1 vote

What is one-place predicate and two-place predicate?

A "one-place" predicate is a predicate that has one "argument", in the languages we know this is the subject of the verb. A "two-place" predicate is, in a sense, a ...
Alazon's user avatar
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1 vote
Accepted

How to write a program that lists out all the grammar patterns used in a given sentence?

Your hunch is not that bad, essentially this is the approach of modern tools used in computational linguistics. Tokenisation is generally seen as an easy task where word forms and punctuation marks ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
1 vote

All the ways you can describe a relationship outside of nouns/verbs/adjectives across languages (i.e. like with prepositions)?

Some more information specifically about Japanese. All case particles in Japanese are postpositional (placed after nouns). Only for very few types of relations, there exist case particles, which by ...
Arfrever's user avatar
  • 553
1 vote

Are there two senses of "grammar" with respect to semantics?

From a programmer's perspective, there are languages with a clear split between "grammar" and "semantics", and languages where that distinction becomes murky. For example, a ...
Simon Richter's user avatar
1 vote

Rule Interaction and the Organization of a Grammar

It was published in the US, and can be acquired through standard interlibrary loan sources.
user6726's user avatar
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1 vote

Grammar/syntax rules for structures larger than the sentence?

I think the answer you are looking for is reference cohesion (comparatives). The sentence provided seems to be grammatically and lexically cohesive, but not very coherent. There is no reference to the ...
An Average Linguist's user avatar
1 vote

New knowledge via HPSG

The general answer is, it offers the insight that human language can be described using a very different theory of linguistic computation than the neo-transformational framework prevailing at the time ...
user6726's user avatar
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1 vote

Mysterious uncertainty about ablative case in Turkish

Although people do speak their own language, this task is almost certainly interpreted as a normative question "What is the proper form of this word?". What is the proper spelling of ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 82.9k
1 vote

Human natural language metalanguage

There are constructed languages that are designed to be parsable, the original was Loglan and it spawned some forks, e.g., Lojban and gua\spi (shortly mentioned in the Wikipedia article on Lojban). I ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar

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