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By convention, NP is the phrasal projection of N, which can be an argument and is what P combines with to make a Prepositional Phrase. N by itself inside the noun phrase "the car" is not a complete argument. You could alternatively adopt the convention that any X not dominated by a projection of itself is automatically considered a maximal ...


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The common meaning of "adjunct" on its own is as "adverbial adjunct". So the Wikipedia page spends most of its time talking about adverbial adjuncts and even acknowledges this: Most discussions of adjuncts focus on adverbial adjuncts, that is, on adjuncts that modify verbs, verb phrases, or entire clauses But you can have non-adverbial ...


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There are two kinds of rules in language: cognitive rules, and social rules. Social rules include statements like that "ain't" is not a word, or prepositions are things that you shouldn't end sentences with; there are also social rules about "will" and "shall". People don't generally know these rules except if they have ...


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Grammar provides additional information about how objects relate to each other. This can also be done with more words. You need less words when you use grammar, resulting often the shorter sentence that can be said in less time. For instance, since grammatical cases were dropped from the English language long time ago, saying "I soup" gives no clue ...


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The thing to remember is that language exists largely (entirely?) to convey "information" from a "source" to a "receiver", and that fidelity of transmission is typically of great importance. The above is true regardless of whether we're talking about natural languages, constructed languages, or even computer-programming ...


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Much discussion of grammar focusses on the words and the relationship between words - perhaps because people studying grammar are mostly linguistics. What often gets missed is that grammar is a feature of language, and language is merely intentional communication. Communication can be extremely simple. If I throw a rock at random and it hits you, that is ...


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A grammar is a set of rules for describing how words in a sentence relate. This is important because some words have multiple 'slots' for relationships that could be filled by the same categories of word, and multiple of the same category of word can be present in a sentence. For example the set of words {The, The, cat, fish, ate}. Each of the 'The's has a ...


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Grammar Exists to make Complex Speech Possible. We use grammar as a way of creating relationships between the words in a sentence, and for expressing additional information without needing to use additional words. So lets pretend you tried to say "He has a daughter with a yellow hat. She went to school with it.". Let's see what happens if you take ...


1

Grammar is likely nothing more than an emergent property of language. Humans are structured, and so what we do forms structure. Eventually we may study whatever structures we've conjured up and catagorise them. I believe this is what happened with grammar - we eventually create complex structure by accident, through generations of improving upon previous ...


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One of the most useful features of human language is that there's an infinite variety of statements that can be made with it. We constantly create new utterances, and the audience can understand them (for the most part -- they might not know some of the words we use). But obviously the brain isn't infinite in size, it can't have neural structures for every ...


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You know how to eat and how to sleep, without studying medicine. You can get job and earn a living without studying politics or economics. You can use a mobile phone without studying electronics, computing, or quantum mechanics. In just the same way you can speak without studying linguistics. Nonetheless, studying these things can help you understand what's ...


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This is a very general question about acceptance of scientific theories, and you can analogously ask if you should really believe that your body is made up of little tiny cells, the cells are made up of really tiny atoms, atoms of made up of even tinier particles maybe even "strings", and so on. People didn't even believe in cells because you can't ...


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