12

Some varieties of English have plural personal pronouns that are composed in roughly the way you're asking. Southern US English you'all/ y'all is composed of the 2nd p. singular pronoun + plural marker all. Because there is now a separate 2nd p. plural pronoun you tends to be restricted to singular reference. I understand the other comments as saying that ...


12

As already said, Japanese works this way: 私 + 達 = we watashi tachi But the same happens in Chinese as well: 我 + 们 = we wo men The first portion of both is the standard way to say "I" (we'll ignore other versions for the sake of this answer). The second is a plural marker.


10

yous This regional term is predominantly used in Scotland and Ireland and throughout Australia, as well as overseas areas of previous Irish emigration e.g. some parts of the US (Boston, MA and Philadelphia, PA) and northern Nova Scotia and Lanark Ontario/Canada and South Auckland, New Zealand. It also occurs in Scouse (usually spelled "yous" as ...


8

Edit: I had almost forgotten about the existence of WALS. Chapter 35 gives an overview of plurality in independent personal pronouns: Chapter Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns. It looks like the category most relevant to your question is type 8 (person stem with a nominal plural affix). If you look at the map on WALS, you can see 19 type 8 ...


8

Lots of confusion here. Hebrew Elohim is morphologically plural but syntactically singular: it governs a verb in the 3rd person singular. Adonai is likewise syntactically singular. Dios is from Latin deus. It is singular. "Some languages" boils down to at most one language (Hebrew).


7

One of these languages is Thai, except it's not a suffix, but a prefix: คุณ [kʰun] you (singular, formal) - พวกคุณ [pʰûːək kʰun] you all (plural, formal) เธอ [tʰɤː] you (singular, informal) - พวกเธอ [pʰûːək tʰɤː] you all (plural, informal) เขา [kʰáu] he/she - พวกเขา [pʰûːək kʰáu] they Note, this does not apply 1st person: ผม versus เรา or พวกเรา


7

Indeed! The most common form of this involves having a dual number, used for exactly two things, and a plural number, used for any more than that. You'll find this in older Indo-European languages and modern Inuit and Semitic languages. Arabic: kitaab "book", kitaabayn "[two] books", kutub "[more than two] books" (Biblical) Hebrew: yōm "day", yomayim "[two]...


7

WALS is a great tool to answer questions like this. With this combined view of three features I find Zapotec and Sre as languages with the following features: Plural prefix / Noun-Adjective / Numeral-Noun


6

In Persian (a.k.a. Farsi) pronouns are built with suffixes: man => me, maha => we shoma => you (formal), shomaha => you all (plural formal) an => he/she/it, anha => they


6

Another language that does this is Nhanda, a Pama-Nyungan language of Western Australia. Nhanda has a productive plural suffix '-nu', which is used to form plurals of both nouns and pronouns, as follows (only showing subject forms): ngayi = 1sg 'I' - ngayinu = 1pl 'we' ngini = 2sg 'you.sg' - ngininu = 2pl 'you.pl' ala = 3sg 'he/she/it'; alanu = 3pl 'they' ...


6

Latin has a pretty large class of nouns like these, which are actually called abundantia in the grammatical tradition. They're second-declension nouns which occur as both masculine and neuter, with no difference in meaning. Examples: baculum/baculus 'staff', cingulum/cingulus 'belt', collum/collus 'neck', pileus/pileum 'cap', vallus/vallum 'palisade'. ...


6

The question addresses an aspect of English syntax that is still somewhat in flux. The mechanism known as copular inversion should be part of the answer. The direct answer to the question(s) is that acceptability judgments exist on a cline. There is more than one principle that influences the choice of subject. When these principles conflict, acceptability ...


6

Since there are more languages with dedicated plural forms than there are with dedicated dual forms, this phenomenon is probably more common with plurals. I'm more familiar with constructions like Japanese "-tachi" being called "associative" plurals: there is a WALS chapter about this grammatical feature ("The Associative Plural", by Michael Daniel and Edith ...


5

Hungarian ő = he/she (genderless) ők = they (also genderless) Note that in Hungarian, the suffix -k is generally used for plural for all words, not just in this case. The basic case has only the third person obeying this rule, the other two are exceptions. However, in other cases, most (or all, I didn't really count) obey this rule, with minor ...


5

English has the suffix -age as one way of indicating that a noun is mass. Wiktionary defines it as "Forming nouns with the sense of collection or appurtenance." It's not a regular marker of mass, but it's a fairly productive derivation: A break is a single fracture or other failure; breakage is one or more such failures. The Jargon File lists lossage as "...


5

I believe you may be looking for the paucal number. Paucal, from Latin paucus, "a few", means: pertaining to a language form referring to a few of something (three to around ten), as a small group of people; contrast singular, dual, trial and plural.


4

You don't need to go around the world to find examples. In Portuguese and French, all plural personal pronouns end in "s". Check below: English French Portuguese I je eu you tu tu he il ele she elle ela it - - we nous nós you vous vós ...


4

Quechua has completely regular plural second- and third-person pronouns: 1sg: ñoqa 2sg: qam 3sg: pay 1pl excl.: ñoqayku 1pl incl.: ñoqanchik 2pl: qamkuna 3pl: paykuna cf.: “man”: runa “men”: runakuna “woman”: warmi “women”: warmikuna The plural suffix -kuna is not mandatory if context suffices.


4

Transnumeral is sometimes used for the form in some systems that are neutral to the other distinctions eg. Basque Absolutive etxe : house - transnumeral etxea : (a) house - singular etxeak : houses - plural Leza & Skopeteas (2004). Numerus IN Booij et al Morphologie/Morphology Vol2, p 1054


4

In Hebrew: רשומה אחת (reshuma 'ahat) = one record שתי רשומות (shtey reshumot) = two records (not to mention special dual forms, [still] used for some nouns in Modern Hebrew) שלוש רשומות (shalosh reshumot) = three records In other Semitic languages the situation seems to be similar, including Maltese, which utilizes the Latin script.


4

In Gaelic deich mbliana d'aois - ten years of age (10) aon bhliain déag d'aois - one year (and) ten of age (11) deich mbliana agus fiche d'aois - ten years and twenty of age (30) dhá scór bliain d'aois - two score years of age (40) deich mbliana le cois an dá scór d'aois - ten years as well as the two score of age (50) ceithre scór de bhlianta d'aois - ...


4

There are languages that have a dual/plural number distinction as well as an inclusive/exclusive distinction in the first person, so there definitely could be separate inclusive first-person pronouns corresponding to "[me] and [you (sing)]" and "[me] and [you (plural)]". "Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns", by Michael Cysouw (Chapter ...


4

An example of how the spoken numerals influenced the way they were written numerically is the Slavic languages and their Cyrillic alphabet. Since Cyrillic is derived from the Greek alphabet, it also inherited the Greek tradition of writing numbers with letters, isopsephy (gematria), which dates back to Euclid, about 300 BC. The first 9 letters were assigned ...


3

My first language, Tamil, has the "gal" suffix in its formal form, and the "ga" or "nga" suffix in the colloquial form. Me - Naan Us - Naangal (formal)/Naanga (colloquial) You - Nee You (plural) - Neengal (formal)/Neenga (colloquial) He/She (polite) - Avar (formal) They (polite) - Avargal (formal) It - Adhu They (neuter) - Adhugal (formal - ...


3

In Asturian, they are marked by gender. Uncountables (or mass nouns) are neuter. Words that be both countable and not will change gender with the countable form being masculine or feminine. L'arena ye blancoNEUT. (the sand is white, as mass) L'arena ye blancaFEM. (the [grain of] sand is white, as countable) Likewise, the pronouns change. L'agua, ¿...


3

Russian has, probably, the most interesting schema: 0 - Plural 1 - Singular 2,3,4 - Dual 5-20 - Plural 21 - Singular 22-24 - Dual 25-30 - Plural ... The genral rule is to check on what digit the number ends: 1 - Singular 2-4 - Dual 5-9,0 - Plural E.g. 12345 - Plural 54321 - Singular In case of long numbers we have to switch ...


3

Malay and Indonesian, like many Austronesian languages, use reduplication to mark plurality. Kucing - cat Kucing-kucing - cats It is, however, possible to denote plurality without changing the form of the noun, as does reduplication. The use of cardinals with (optional) classifiers doesn't change the form of the noun: 1/se- (ekor) kucing 5 (...


3

Japanese also lacks plural marking for most nouns - for example: 猫 (neko) - Cat, 猫 (neko) - Cats However, in order to show plurality it has many many many counters, for instance 名 (mei) which is a polite counter for people. For example, 日 (nichi), the counter for days:- 二十日 - Literally 20 (day counter).


3

There are also languages that have more than singular, dual, plural. A good overview is provided by Corbett 2000, which is an really good overview over the category of Number in general. Here are some examples he gives (§ 2.2): Languages with the trial (for “three”): Larike (Central Moluccan), Ngan’gityemerri (Daly), Marrithiyel (Daly), Anindilyakwa (the ...


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