8 votes
Accepted

Do all languages have the same set of grammatical relations?

I assume, based on the your posts elsewhere, that by 'sentence parts', you are referring to grammatical relations (GRs) like subject, object, etc. In the future, it would be clearer for you to call ...
WavesWashSands's user avatar
6 votes

What is the difference between 'actor' and 'subject' in systemic functional grammar?

In Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), a clause is analysed for transitivity in different ways depending on the type of process the main verb represents. Let's consider the following clauses: [I] ...
Daniel's user avatar
  • 161
6 votes

Is a language without inflection a language without subject?

"Subject" is not defined as the argument which agrees with the affixes of the verb. Sometimes, "subject" is defined as that argument which verbs agree with. In the modern era, you might start with the ...
user6726's user avatar
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6 votes
Accepted

Instrumental - nominative inversion in Polish

TL;DR: Your assumption is correct, "the new relation" is the main subject, while "result of the expression" is the nominal predicate. It's a remnant of the ancient Essive/Translative grammatical ...
Be Brave Be Like Ukraine's user avatar
5 votes

What is ''syntactic behavior"?

The short answer is that there's no exact answer. There is no clear cross-linguistic definition of what a 'word' is, and therefore no real distinction between syntax and morphology. Indeed, there are ...
WavesWashSands's user avatar
4 votes
Accepted

What is the subject of a passive sentence?

The former object becomes the new subject. That is clear -- the new subject has all the properties one could reasonably associate with a subject. Number agreement with the verb and subject raising ...
Greg Lee's user avatar
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3 votes

About the universality of the notion of subject and the description of ergativity

Greenberg's universal #38 ("Where there is a case system, the only case which ever has only zero allomorphs is the one which includes among its meanings that of the subject of the intransitive verb") ...
Darkgamma's user avatar
  • 1,427
2 votes
Accepted

how do SOV langues mark Subject?

Zillions of possibilities here. If I understand correctly, you are mainly concerned about the possibility that there is no obvious boundary between the subject and object in case there is a multiple ...
Eleshar's user avatar
  • 2,363
2 votes
Accepted

About the universality of the notion of subject and the description of ergativity

in the end it seems to me that the definition of ergativity in terms of intransitive/transitive subject and object is hardly satisfying and looks either circular or ethnocentrist. So why is it still ...
brass tacks's user avatar
2 votes

Raised object vs. Subordinate subject (I didn't want 'Kim' mistreating my cat)

Yes, Kim is a raised object in (2). But it's not in (1) or (3). They all come from similar structures, a main clause I didn't want NP, where the NP is a complement clause with Kim as subject and ...
jlawler's user avatar
  • 10k
1 vote

what's this linguistic phenomenon?

The questions examples are all topic-comment sentential-phrase pattern. Most languages other than English do this even more than English does, but as your examples demonstrate, it is grammatical in ...
Andreas ZUERCHER's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Help with syntax analysis

The classical transformational analysis is that the deep structure is [[(Someone)] [must confess [that he was disappointed]]]. This gives you "the meaning" of the sentence. This is ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 82.9k
1 vote

Raised object vs. Subordinate subject (I didn't want 'Kim' mistreating my cat)

Yes - syntactically, 'Kim' is raised to object. A pronoun there (such as 'him') would be in object form. 'Kim' is the subject of the embedded clause, but that clause is the direct object of 'want', ...
amI's user avatar
  • 656
1 vote

Looking for the name of research area *my brother helps me (to) translate*

The example is a classical linguistic question with the canonical example phrase "help him (to) write" (for an overview and more references, see, e.g., Pinson (2015)), but it is not a named ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
1 vote

What is the difference between 'actor' and 'subject' in systemic functional grammar?

I thought a shorter answer might help some people: The actor (or agent) performs the action (upon the patient). The subject is what the predicate gets filed under. With a verb in active voice, the ...
amI's user avatar
  • 656
1 vote

Asking for analysis of sentences

In "You call him whatever you want" the "whatever you want" is a noun phrase consisting of a relative clause -- there is no noun head. Similarly, in "What I need most is a good rest" the subject noun ...
Greg Lee's user avatar
  • 12.5k
1 vote

Second Person Inanimates in Swahili

The second person singular object marker is always -ku-. The marker -ki- is third person and only used for inanimates, which a rhinoceros is not. Addressing something in 2nd person, even something ...
Imralu's user avatar
  • 135
1 vote

Which languages have Subject-object agreement in relative clauses?

I would not call this object-agreement because (to my knowledge) it also holds for non-object relative clauses, such as adverbial relative clauses (but not for subject-relative clauses, as I'm sure ...
laszabine's user avatar

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