I'd suggest 'it depends' as answer. Whether or not b and B are to be considered members of the same grapheme or allographs of one single grapheme (call it /b/) is not so much a statement about reality as it is a statement about the assumptions that you built your theory on. This is exactly the same state of affairs as in phonology.
I give a simple example. ...
While Latin is probably the most-extended script out there, many other writing systems have been extended in the same way.
In the "oldest" form of the Greek alphabet (i.e. the oldest form we consider Greek rather than Phoenician), a number of letters were missing. Phi, chi, psi, and omega (Φ Χ Ψ Ω) were later inventions to better fit Greek ...
I haven't heard about anything like that concerning cuneiform glyphs, but there's a very interesting paper, The Xixia Writing System (Bachelor of Arts Honours Thesis), 2008, by Alan Downes (downloadable here), in which the author proposes a very smart way to encode the Tangut characters which are far more complicated than cuneiform glyphs. The author's aim ...
This is only a partial answer : æ, ǽ, ǣ and ǣ́ may be used to write a vowel present in Old English. This vowel can be short(æ) or long(ǣ), unstressed(æ,ǣ) or stressed(ǽ,ǣ́).
Some random examples:
æ : Beowulf.53 : Ðā wæs on búrgum Bḗow Scýldìnga,
ǽ : Beowulf.3 : hū ðā ǽþelíngas éllen frémedon.
ǣ : Beowul.32 : Þǣr æt hȳ́ðe stṓd hrínġedstéfna
This barred q is one of the abbreviations for any one of many Latin words beginning with q, among them the super common relative pronoun "qui, quae, quod", which would apply in this case (as the neuter gender form quod, as seen in full here).
I just wanted to add a brief comment re: the name of the connecting element in question.
I personally haven't seen any standardised term for it. Sometimes it is referred to as a bow or a loop (e.g. the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.). Descriptively, it is a semicircular stroke above ct.
I'm not quite sure why - perhaps @Cerberus or someone else could ...
They are regional variants:
Numerical Notation: A Comparative History, Stephen Chrisomalis (p.198, 199, 211)
This is a fairly hard problem (well, 2: the g2p problem, and the word-formation problem). Per-grapheme:phoneme (fun fact: such mappings are sometimes called ‘graphones') dictionaries for English don’t (can’t) exist, because there’s lots of ambiguity and issues of multiple n-gram sizes (as in your example, ‘ie’ = /IY/, but sometime ‘i’ = /IY/, or /IH/, or ...
Even in RTL languages you are still writing numbers and numbers are LTR so when writing numbers we should treat them as LTR so -10°C is the correct way.
Consider the following example from Persian:
هوا نزدیک 10- بود
The temperature was nearly minus 10 degrees
most of the mathematical abbreviations are written exactly as they are written in Latin ...
This ligature stands for quae. Here is a modern type transliteration of that sentence with the ligature, it is below the image of the page:
"Etenim alchim signiﬁcat itinera sive ﬂuxus ab alich, quae signiﬁcat facere, ambulare, seu ﬂuere, unde ars liquans seu fundens metalla abiecta literula, i, ﬁt alquimia facillima formatione", etc.
Another source with ...
There's a paper by Jiampojamarn and Kondrak: Letter-Phoneme Alignment: An Exploration that comes with software: m2m-aligner. This can work on cmudict (but you need to reformat cmudict). I ran it without the emphasis markers and got:
Here's what I ran:
We just finished a project for which we developed a Phonics Engine (see paper https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280147388_Building_a_Phonics_Engine_for_Automated_Text_Guidance) that does exactly that. We have a dictionary (BrEng) that produces mappings such as b:b,a:@,tch:tS - both the code and the final dictionary are available but, unfortunately, ...
Probably every alphabetic script is extensible in principle; more interesting is the question what alphabets with extensions are in practical use. To list a few
Cyrillic has been extended in the Soviet Union to accommodate writing of Turkic languages and Caucasian languages. The main means of extension was the creation of new letter shapes.
Arabic has been ...
If you don't count underline as a character, sure. Though it's old fashioned. To give the impression that a story was redacted from a police report, but with the name of a principle character concealed, you see things like "After recovering from these violent events, ___ met with this investigator to give his account of the strange goings on." Or, ...
Except in leet speak, they’re certainly not free homographs.
Grapheme and allograph are terms that are seemingly easy to define, hence formal definitions don’t vary much (especially if you don’t count the useless “visual phoneme” and “alias for letter/character” ones), but when it gets to actually using those terms, many scholars stretch their meaning as ...