Here's a paper that's addressed a similar phenomenon of the different realizations of /θ/ between Cantonese and Sichuanese speakers, both of which are dialects of Chinese and share similar phonetic inventories.
The paper conducted production and perception comparisons between Cantonese and Sichuanese native speakers as to explore the reason for different ...
This is a great question without a clear answer. People have struggled to find the answer since the 1970s:
Here is my 2002 paper with many references listed in Appendix A. See also my dissertation on the topic.
There are many cases of two languages or two dialects with the same or similar phonological inventories (the same phonemes), which substitute ...
Hindi gẽd does indeed descend from Skt. genduka-. The latter is considered to be a loan from Dravidian (see Turner 4248). Armenian gund is a borrowing from Parthian or Persian gund < Iranian *gṛnda-. In Middle and New Persian gund is attested only in the meaning ‘testicle’. So the answer to your question is that they are probably not related.
How do Hindi and Urdu actually differ? Is the relationship between the
(spoken) languages more like the relationship between Glaswegian
English and American English or Spanish and Portuguese?
Are their grammatical forms exactly the same?
sentence structure of Urdu and Hindi is completely the same.
Do they differ in terms of pronunciation?
Shyamsundara Dasa's Hindi Shabdasagar dictionary has an entry (link):
बिगुल संज्ञा पुं० [अं०] अँगरेजी ढंग की एक प्रकार की तुरही जो प्रायः सैनिकों को एकत्र करने अथवा इसी प्रकार का कोई और काम करने के लिये संकेत रूप में बजाई जाती है । मुहा०—बिगुल बजना = (१) किसी कार्य के लिये आदेश होना । (२) कूच होना ।
It says "an English style of horn usually used to call ...
The Hindustani language is Hindi-Urdu dialect continuum. It is derived regularly from older stages of Indo-Aryan (like Sanskrit). You have already noted the influence of Persian (which was a major one because it was the official language of the Moghul empire), Turkish (which was minor and mainly through Persian transmission), and Arabic (both through Persian ...
The ultimate origin of that word is Ancient Greek ὄπιον (ópion, "opium") which is a diminutive form of ὀπός (opós, “juice”). It was borrowed into Persian as اپیون (apiyūn) and from Persian it was borrowed into Arabic as أفيون (ʾafyūn).
The problem with your question is that you are assuming that Hindustani was “spoken in India before any West Asians invaded it”. The fact is that Hindi/Urdu does not emerge as specific language before the 13th century. By this time India had already been invaded by many West Asians, beginning with the Achaemenid Persians, and later by Persian and Turkic ...
Highly unlikely. Where PIE /*g *gw/ had shifted to /g/ in Sanskrit, they had shifted to /k/ in Armenian. Also, Armenian /u/ comes from PIE /*ō *u *uH/, so the vowels don't line up. It might, on the other hand, be a borrowing from an Iranian language into Armenian, but they are not native cognates.
"Bigul" is not in Turner's Comparative Dictionary, nor in Platts' Dictionary of Classical Urdu/Hindi. It is evidently a borrowing from English, with simplification of the /ju/ in the first syllable to /i/.
कुछ (kuch) "something"
क्या (kyā) "what?"
are examples of inanimate pronouns1 in Hindi (as opposed to the animate कोई (koī) "someone; anyone" and कौन (kaun) "who?").
1. Specifically, the inanimate singular indefinite and interrogative pronouns.
Source: Hindi, Yamuna Kachru (p.62)
I think this is caused by the existing transliteration rules for writing Hindi words in Roman letters. The Hindi letter थ (/t̪ʰ/) is written as th when writing Hindi words in Roman letters. For example: थोडा is written as thoda which means 'less', and a name आदिनाथ is written as Adinath. But स (/s/) transliterates to s. Eg: सब - sab which means 'all'. Also, ...
Quoting the paper you link:
A particular sound which does not exist in the native language can therefore pose a difficulty for the second language learners to produce or some times to try to substitute those sounds with similar ones in their mother tongue. These sounds include both vowels and consonants. For example, there are no vowels like /æ/, /au/, and /...
The Wortschatz corpora at Leipzig University offer some Hindi corpora of different sizes and genres for download, go to this site
The perhaps obvious answer, if we speak of the ancestors of today's Indic languages relative to other Indo-Iranian and Indo-European languages, is that they were greatly influenced by the languages that existed there before them, that is, substrate.
There is some debate as to what the substrate languages actually are. The Dravidian languages and other ...
As a native Urdu speaker, /e:/, /ɛ:/, /o:/ and /ɔ:/ are always long and phonemic.
I will put forward some examples of minimal pairs where the contrast is essential for differentiation.
/bɛ:l/ (बैल) (bull/ox)
/be:l/ (बेल) (vine)
/o:r/ (ओर) (direction/face)
/ɔ:r/ (और) (and/more)
Not pronouncing these vowels correctly is considered non-standard and might be ...
I don't believe Arabic ۃ is ever replaced with ط (t̤oʼē) in Urdu.
Arabic ۃ is usually replaced with ہ (gōl hē) with the exception of a few well-known terms, such as: صلوٰۃ زکوٰۃ. Examples of Arabic words where it's replaced with ہ include کلمہ, طیّبہ, زیادہ.
If you know Urdu well enough, you can read some discussion on this message board which also points to ...
One hypothesis is that these words are cognates, going back to an Indo-European word for "owl" (see also English "owl", German Eule, and so on).
Another hypothesis is that they're all onomatopoetic, imitating the sound of some species of owl, and weren't actually inherited from PIE. In this case it's "coincidence" rather than genetic relationship, in the ...
Technological Development for Indian Languages has a lot of resources for research in areas of NLP and Computational Linguistics on Indian Languages. It offers both annotated and unannotated corpora if you search by keywords in their Resources and Tools section.
For the time being, I could not find any free corpora for the Hindi Language, however for those who are curious to find out the available corpora (irrespective of the price) here are some:
Hindi WaC Corpus: Sketch Engine
Hindi TenTen Corpus: Sketch Engine
OPUS Parallel Corpora: Sketch Engine
I am not aware of any central repository for all Bollywood scripts, and The Internet Movie Script Database does not host Bollywood movies at the moment. But the screenplay of individual movie are not hard to come by. The troublesome part is looking for screenplay one movie at a time. There are a few blogs run by keen amateurs that host a few titles each. ...
In Hindi, he/she/it are a single pronoun, i.e. there is no distinction between inanimate and animate. The only distinction in pronouns is distance (near and far) and number (singular and plural).
The pronouns are:
यह - he/she/it (near)
वह - he/she/it (far)
ये - they (near)
वे - they (far)
There are several parts to your questions.
Is Hindi easier to speak for children? No. All languages are about the same level of difficulty for children.
How come the child is learning even when she is getting less attention from adults? Adults are only one source of language learning for children. Sometimes not even the main one. She is likely learning as ...