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2

To add on to fdb's answer: The change of initial PIE *k (and *ḱ) to Proto-Germanic *h is well-known (part of Grimm's Law), so that part of the derivation is completely expected and regular. "Rape" might instead descend from Latin rapiō, in which case a different PIE root *h₁rep- "take away, snatch" has been proposed (compare Greek ...


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The idea is that the zero-grade of IE *ker, *kor, *kr gives Germanic hraben, with subsequent loss of the initial h-.


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The differences between [b] and [v] are fairly trivial between from a historical and phonetic perspective. The count of shared categories in the IPA chart isn't a good way of judging similarity (and the IPA doesn't claim to embody all relevant concepts of "category"). They are voiced oral labials: you can add "-dental" or "bi-" ...


3

What is often marked ě in Slavic studies was probably actually a long e (*ē, with some unspecified degree of openness). I am not sure there is any widely accepted intermediate *ě₁ that would be clearly distinct from the original *ē. One could simply consider *C₁ē > *C₂a. The examples that changed to an "a" could be: mozg‑ē‑nos > mozd’žanъ >...


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If you have access to any university network, simply search for dictionaries in their databases. Most universities will have what you are searching for. I needed less than 5 min to find over 20 dictionaries ranging from 1735 to the present day.


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You can find free ebooks on Google Books, usually works too old to be currently copyrighted. There’s a decent selection of English dictionaries there (and even more bilingual English dictionaries). You can restrict the publication date to a specific range of years or browse results sorted by date.


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