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Sumerian and Egyptian are the two languages we have the oldest understandable written texts from. Which one counts as "older" is a difficult question to answer, because we can't make dictionaries based on just the oldest attested artifact for each—a lot of the information needed to really document the language comes from much later sources. ...


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One interpretation of the question is, what was the first language X for which there is an X-English dictionary? The dictionary of syr Thomas Eliot knyght (1538) is probably the first such dictionary: X is Latin. For the other direction (from English to some language) the first bilingual dictionary is Promptorium parvulorum, ca 1440, which is English to ...


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