10

An interesting, non-exotic, case is German. In the familiar register you can say “geh nach Hause”, “geht nach Hause”, with implicit subject, but you can also say “geh du nach Hause” and “geht Ihr nach Hause” with explicit subject and a slightly more insistent tone. On the other hand, in the polite register you need to say “gehen Sie nach Hause”; the explicit ...


6

Classical Arabic may provide an example: see section 6.1.3 of Brame 1970. His account is that the affirmative imperative is formed by truncating the subject prefix ta- from the 2nd person jussive, and then other rules may apply as appropriate (notably, epenthesis of a harmonizing vowel if the stem has an initial cluster, so /ta-ktub/ → ktub → [ʔuktub] "write!...


5

There are several exceptions to this rule (etc. Icelandic, Tagalog), see Nikolaeva 2007 for more details. Icelandic Tagalog and Newari Ndyuka That is why Jerry and Kissine write that such strong universal claims about imperatives are “perhaps ill-advised” (p. 102). https://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/languages-linguistics/semantics-and-...


4

For the German language there is a form called Erikativ or Inflektiv which is just the isolated verb stem. It is arguably simpler than the imperative singular because for some strong verbs there is a vowel change in the imperative singular (e.g., treten, tritt, stem tret "to kick"; geben, gib, stem geb "to give"). The Erikativ is predominantly used in ...


4

This is a fairly common gap for languages to have, though it's not universal. (Ancient Greek, for example, has regular imperatives in the active, middle, and passive voices.) So it's not surprising that Swedish lacks this form. The reason it's so commonly missing is because of the semantic oddness. Normally an imperative is commanding someone to do ...


4

The German case you cite is separate from the English one. In Germanic languages in general, there never was any third-person imperative. But when German borrowed the T-V distinction from neighboring languages, the second person plural (Ihr) took on a polite singular meaning. And later, when this stopped being polite enough, the third person plural (Sie) ...


4

The area of research you want to look at is local grammars (an approach developed in the late 1990s). It's been used for identifying things like commands, definitions, etc. in text. The idea is that certain functional areas can be identified through certain construction patterns and keywords based on their distribution in a corpus. These patterns constitute ...


3

I think that what you're looking at is a task that resembles intent determination. I would peruse some literature on that topic. For instance, it might be good to approach this as a classification task for verb phrases (is the verb phrase an action item or not?). It seems to me that the heuristic, parser-based approach has some problems and the solution is ...


3

Thai is somewhat similar to what jick described for Korean in that its adjectives are stative verbs but cannot be used as imperatives, so the phrase "be happy" would be achieved by one of any number of circumlocutions. To me, the most interesting one is that even though Thai has no imperative suffix or particle, it does have an auxiliary adverb อย่า (yàa) ...


2

Korean is unusual in that its "adjectives" (or "stative verbs") behave like full-fledged verbs. (Imagine, instead of "He is happy" or "a happy person", you say "He happies" and "a happying person".) Standard Korean used to disallow imperatives for adjectives, so, for example, instead of saying &...


2

Note that, in Latin, the normal imperative is e.g. mitte, where the first person singular is mitto. So at least for some verbs the first person singular is as simple as the imperative. But, generally, yes, imperatives are among the simplest forms. In Greek, it depends on the verb. For most verbs, the imperative is short. But there are verbs where the ...


2

I think the problems associated with defining "imperative" non-circularly are sufficiently large that they preclude answering the question. It is presumably clear that meaning and usage can't distinguish imperatives from other constructions such as subjunctives. Imperatives are not definable morphologically (there are not always bare verbs -- see for ...


1

The order is really arbitrary or a result of the syntactic constraints of the language. (Generally SAE requires imperatives take the first position whereas even in neighbouring Eastern European IE Your food eat! Or Home go! are perfectly normal. Accordingly generally the SAE imperatives do not have unique morphology to make it clear that they are ...


1

As requested by user3898238 in his comment to mine, I try to provide an answer: The verb review is, wrongly, labeled as a subordinating conjunction for the possible reason that in English conjunctions precede the clause they head. Since a subordinating conjunction is absent, the program simply chooses the next available option, i.e. the initial word. My ...


1

I understand the overall meaning of your question as relations between forms and semantics of imperative and various forms of past tense. In Sanscrit (another ancient language), the Imperative did belong to a group of present-tense forms, although some endings of Imperative were similar to those of imperfective forms. Also, injunctive forms in Sanskrit were ...


1

The sentences on the left are known as indirect speech, and the ones on the right are known as direct speech. This is a more general phenomenon; the matrix clause need not be a command (as in your examples), but can also be - in fact, are more commonly - statements, as I'll illustrate in the examples below. The primary difference between the two lies in ...


1

Modals -- and English modals in particular -- have several different varieties of sense. Must has two senses: the Deontic sense, which is social and deals with obligation and limitation of actions He must be back home by midnight. You must not panic when she appears. the Epistemic sense, which is logical and deals with judgements about probability This ...


1

So the word I was looking for was the hortative modality. This is a set of modalities where the speaker strongly encourages or exhorts someone to do something. Specifically, I think it's either the dehortative or inhortative modality, where the speaker discourages an action, as in "You must not fear." This wikipedia article has useful information to this ...


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