10 votes

Is "imperatives have invisible subjects" a universal?

An interesting, non-exotic, case is German. In the familiar register you can say “geh nach Hause”, “geht nach Hause”, with implicit subject, but you can also say “geh du nach Hause” and “geht Ihr nach ...
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6 votes
Accepted

Is there a language where another verb form is simpler/more basic than the imperative?

Classical Arabic may provide an example: see section 6.1.3 of Brame 1970. His account is that the affirmative imperative is formed by truncating the subject prefix ta- from the 2nd person jussive, and ...
  • 70.5k
5 votes

Is "imperatives have invisible subjects" a universal?

There are several exceptions to this rule (etc. Icelandic, Tagalog), see Nikolaeva 2007 for more details. Icelandic Tagalog and Newari Ndyuka That is why Jerry and Kissine write that such strong ...
  • 8,453
4 votes

Is there a language where another verb form is simpler/more basic than the imperative?

For the German language there is a form called Erikativ or Inflektiv which is just the isolated verb stem. It is arguably simpler than the imperative singular because for some strong verbs there is a ...
4 votes
Accepted

Why is there not passive imperative?

This is a fairly common gap for languages to have, though it's not universal. (Ancient Greek, for example, has regular imperatives in the active, middle, and passive voices.) So it's not surprising ...
  • 54.2k
4 votes
Accepted

Imperative + pronoun

The German case you cite is separate from the English one. In Germanic languages in general, there never was any third-person imperative. But when German borrowed the T-V distinction from neighboring ...
  • 54.2k
4 votes

Detecting actions within text

The area of research you want to look at is local grammars (an approach developed in the late 1990s). It's been used for identifying things like commands, definitions, etc. in text. The idea is that ...
3 votes

Detecting actions within text

I think that what you're looking at is a task that resembles intent determination. I would peruse some literature on that topic. For instance, it might be good to approach this as a classification ...
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3 votes

Are there languages where the imperative of "to be" (as in "be happy") is non-existent or achievable through vastly different means?

Thai is somewhat similar to what jick described for Korean in that its adjectives are stative verbs but cannot be used as imperatives, so the phrase "be happy" would be achieved by one of any number ...
2 votes

Are there languages where the imperative of "to be" (as in "be happy") is non-existent or achievable through vastly different means?

Korean is unusual in that its "adjectives" (or "stative verbs") behave like full-fledged verbs. (Imagine, instead of "He is happy" or "a happy person", you say ...
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2 votes

Is there a language where another verb form is simpler/more basic than the imperative?

Note that, in Latin, the normal imperative is e.g. mitte, where the first person singular is mitto. So at least for some verbs the first person singular is as simple as the imperative. But, generally, ...
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2 votes

Is "imperatives have invisible subjects" a universal?

I think the problems associated with defining "imperative" non-circularly are sufficiently large that they preclude answering the question. It is presumably clear that meaning and usage can't ...
  • 70.5k
1 vote

What languages reinforce imperatives with conjunctions?

The order is really arbitrary or a result of the syntactic constraints of the language. (Generally SAE requires imperatives take the first position whereas even in neighbouring Eastern European IE ...
1 vote
Accepted

Are imperative verbs starting a command subordinating conjunctions?

As requested by user3898238 in his comment to mine, I try to provide an answer: The verb review is, wrongly, labeled as a subordinating conjunction for the possible reason that in English conjunctions ...
  • 1,404
1 vote
Accepted

What languages have a Perfect Imperative and what is the meaning of such a tense-mood combination?

I understand the overall meaning of your question as relations between forms and semantics of imperative and various forms of past tense. In Sanscrit (another ancient language), the Imperative did ...
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1 vote

Is there a name or formalism for transforming imperative commands to personalized phrases?

The sentences on the left are known as indirect speech, and the ones on the right are known as direct speech. This is a more general phenomenon; the matrix clause need not be a command (as in your ...
1 vote

What type of modality is "You must not fear"?

Modals -- and English modals in particular -- have several different varieties of sense. Must has two senses: the Deontic sense, which is social and deals with obligation and limitation of actions ...
  • 9,670
1 vote
Accepted

What type of modality is "You must not fear"?

So the word I was looking for was the hortative modality. This is a set of modalities where the speaker strongly encourages or exhorts someone to do something. Specifically, I think it's either the ...
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