25

In Korean, 오른쪽 wolunccwok "right (direction)" comes from 옳- wolh- "correct" + -은 -un (Attributive) + 쪽 ccwok "direction", literally meaning "the correct direction". Another word for "right side", 바른편 palunphyen, literally means "The correct side" as well. Similarly, 왼쪽 oynccwok "left (direction)" comes from 외- oy- "crooked" + -ㄴ -n (Attributive) + 쪽 ccwok "...


15

It exists in semitic languages. "ymn" has directional right as its radical sense in the Ethiopian semitic languages but is also commonly used for good news, e.g., Yemane is a common name there, like Yaman in arabic languages. (I had always assumed the country name Yemen drew from the same root but Wikipedia claims that is just folk etymology: "One etymology ...


7

No. Some instances of Proto-Indo-European *s were rhotacized in Germanic; some instances of PIE *s went to /x/ in Slavic by the Ruki rule. There is some overlap between the two sets, but the environments of the changes are different and they do not share any phonetic motivation, so it's meaningless to call one change a "variant" of the other. In ...


7

In Finnish, oikea means both correct and the right direction. Finnish is a Finno-Ugric language, part of the Uralic languages and thus not Indo-European.


6

From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian it has been theorized that *e, *o, and the sometimes reconstructed *a all merged into *a (some exceptions such as Brugmann's law--*o > *ā in open syllables--apply). This probably happened sometime around the 3rd millennium BCE when the Indo-Europeans began to split up, with the Indo-Iranians moving towards the ...


6

As Jk wrote in his answer, the regular sound changes stop working regularly when it comes to onomatopoetic words. However, it does not mean that the sound changes do not occur and cannot be researched. To give you some data points, here is the article from Vasmer's etymological dictionary which lists some possible cognates from Slavic, Baltic and Germanic ...


6

In the tree model of language evolution, languages change and evolve regularly over time, eventually becoming different enough from their ancestors to be called a new language. In this model, Old English descends from Anglo-Frisian, which descends from Proto-Germanic, so Old English is a Germanic language. And for many purposes, this model works great! That'...


5

No. The Russian 'х' /x/ does not count as a rhotic sound despite the fact that some French r's are pronounced now in a very similar way. The Russian /x/ is the end product of a longer chain of sound shifts /s/ -> /ʂ/ -> /x/ in the RUKI environment. High German shows a similar sound shift, the group /rs/ became /rʃ/ (written rsch) as exemplified by ...


4

Indo-European and Germanic are language families, not individual languages, and Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Germanic are each the single language that is the reconstructed most recent common ancestor of all of the languages in their respective language family. Sometimes people (not usually linguists) use "Germanic" as a noun as a short-hand for either the ...


4

Wiktionary:short #Translations seems to be a good start for answering such questions with regard to modern/living languages. It has no grouping by language families, however.


4

Japanese has no such semantic connections. “Right (side)” in Japanese is 右 (migi) “Left (side)” in Japanese is 左 (hidari) “Correct” in Japanese is 正しい (tadashii), an adjective “Wrong” in Japanese is 違う (chigau), a verb that also means “to differ, to be different” I believe Mandarin Chinese also has four different and unrelated lexemes for these four ...


3

Before leaping to conclusions about prehistoric borrowing, you should consider two alternative hypotheses: (1) echoic origin, and (2) coincidental similarity. Arabic lacks an obvious cognate to KRT (כרת), but it has QŢ3 (قطع), QŢM (قطم), and QŢŢ (قطط) all meaning cut. Perhaps KT and QT imitated the sound of chopping, or KRT the sound of sawing. Random ...


3

Following Hamp (1978, apud Blazek, Indo-European-Numerals) the Indo-Aryan forms require *Kswek's. There's no unique solution. Blazek sums that up pretty well, but doesn't spell it out and instead assumes prior *g'hes + *wek's, compounded to *g'hswek's, depalatized, because of the rule against two occlusives from the same series in a single root, thus giving ...


3

As an exception to the Indo-European rule, in Croatian pravo means right as in right vs. wrong and as in legal rights. E.g. Ti imaš pravo means You are right and Imaš pravo na šutnju means You have the right to remain silent. However, pravo as a direction means straight ahead.


3

In Georgian, right (direction) is მარჯვენა [marjvena] and left is მარცხენა [marcxena] გამარჯვება [gamarjveba] means victory დამარცხება [damarcxeba] means defeat The adjective მარჯვე [marjve] translates as able, dexterous, adroit The noun მარცხი [marcxi] can mean failure, miscarriage, or bust


3

Chinese has negative-left connotations (although I have encountered these much more in literary writing than in speech). It appears to be based on handedness rather than etymology. The Kangxi entry for 左 (left) quotes the following notes from 《增韻》 (a rime book): 左,右之對,人道尚右,以右爲尊。 Left, the opposite of right. The Way of Man esteems the right, taking the right ...


3

Are there families of Indo-European languages that don't exhibit this characteristic? The Scandinavian languages don’t have quite the same system — the word for right still comes from adjectives with positive connotations, but slightly different ones. I’ll give Swedish since that’s what I know; the Norwegian, Danish, and Icelandic words for right and left ...


3

(A long time after I wondered about this at Wiktionary discussion page, user Conlibae M. Rep knowledgable in Slovene gave an answer there that must settle this question! Let me translate from Russian a similar answer another person (todash_tahken) gave in LiveJournal concerning this matter, which I've just found by googling.) Those who know Slovene would ...


3

You guys never learn to use the Interet Archive. Re: Kobayashi: Go to https://archive.org/ and in the Wayback Machine frame enter http://www.gengo.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~masatok/hpiac_2004.pdf, then you receive the list of IA copies, https://web.archive.org/web/*/http://www.gengo.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~masatok/hpiac_2004.pdf. On the attempt to donwload, you'll see that ...


2

Another interesting book is: Jonsson - The Laryngeal Theory 1978 It's quite easy to read and has a large historiographical background up to the current status of the issue.


2

From what I've read, the clear consensus among linguists is that Albanian is a descendant of the Paleo-Balkan language, which has already been mentioned. What hasn't been mentioned is the ancient Dacian language. The Pre-Roman Romanians seem to have been Dacians. There also seems to be a strong relationship between Dacian and Albanian. Romanian seems to be a ...


2

There are three possible explanations: Turkish has borrowed many words from other languages, just as has Albanian. I have been told courant d'air is actually a Turkish word (probably spelled the Turkish way). It is possible that your word, or a morpheme in it, was borrowed from an Indo-European language long ago. It may have happened in early praehistoric ...


2

Frequent use of the passive in English is not a breach of any "recommended" proportion. Rather, it is a function of register, i.e. it depends on the formality of the situation and the education of the speaker/writer. Some examples: Written English uses more passives than spoken English. In many scientific disciplines, students are told very early ...


1

It seems that the topic of substrates in Europe has fallen into lack of interest, since the deaths of a number of German scholars. Conspicuously, the book by Fortson on IEan language and culture does not even spend a detailed word on this topic. The word "substrate" apparently occurs only twice in the whole book, just to mention they exist! I'm ...


1

Very frequently, Tocharian has y- where *H1 is expected: for example "horse" is yuk. I suppose Fortson does not mention that kind of phenomenon because Tocharian is far from being completely understood.


1

In Russian, it's the same. Right (правый, praviy) means correct, and left (левый, leviy) sometimes means bad or wrong. E.g. saying to go to the left (пойти налево, poiti na levo) may mean to cheat in romantic relationships.


1

Words like cuckoo or зозуля zozúlja are onomatopoetic and thus impossible to tract by historical linguistic methods. Because they are linked to natural sounds (in this case the call of the bird) they do not follow the regular sound laws. They also tend to be re-created anew ex nihilo (i.e., just from the natural sounds they are imitating). TL;DR Nothing ...


1

In Arabic, Plural in Arabic is divided into sparse very few few more than sparse plenty a lot combined too much for Example, the word Man = RaJol , with the root R-J-L Plural sparse ➡ Rjajel equal to the English phrase 'few men' Plural few ➡ ِArajel equal to saying 'some few men' in English Plural plenty ➡ Rejal ...


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