New answers tagged

9

The three genders are found in all the oldest Indo-European languages we know (Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Gothic, Old Irish, Old Church Slavonic, Old Norse) with the exception of Hittite. Hittite had two genders; but the two were neuter and common, rather than masculine and feminine. Some scholars believe that Hittite represents an earlier stage, and Indo-...


18

The association was certainly firmly in place already during the time that ancient Greek and Latin grammarians were writing about grammatical gender, so the fact that genus can be translated as "kind" is probably not relevant in the way that you suggest. Latin grammarians tended to lay significance on the fact that genus shares a root with the verb ...


41

Short answer: the association between the grammatical genders and sociological genders happened very early in Indo-European, but it was an association rather than an equivalence and had many exceptions. I read that greek/latin used words that translate to "kind" to describe the noun classes (as we use "gender" today), so maybe the ...


11

Some time after the middle of the 4th millenium BC. As discussed in this article by Luraghi, IE did not develop sex-based gender distinctions until the Anatolian branch split off, which is typically said to be in the mid 4000's BC. §5.2-3 of the article on the development of the differentiation of the feminine in later PIE. This is well before classical ...


4

A number of languages: Basque, Kartvelian and Caucasic, have prefixal nominal morphology, especially prefixes a-, ma- and tsa-. None of this exists in PIE. So PIE belongs to another family than Basque, Kartvelian and Caucasic. A family ("Pontic") that would put together Caucasic and PIE does not make sense. Now the issue of crosslinguistic ...


0

Is Modern Hebrew an Indo-European Language? First, I'm looking at this question as someone who got his Master's in Arabic Linguistics, and read the Pentateuch in Classical Hebrew, and read some Syriac and Talmud. I also have read some Middle Egyptian. So, very strong Classical Arabic, decent Biblical Hebrew, and working knowledge of Aramaic, Egyptian, and ...


Top 50 recent answers are included