6

It is often helpful to avoid voiceless sounds as much as possible in prosody stimuli, to get a clearer pitch track. For example, "Mary will win" has no voiceless sounds (from: Pierrehumbert, J. (2000). Tonal elements and their alignment. In Prosody: Theory and experiment (pp. 11-36). Springer Netherlands.). For demonstration purposes, you may also want to ...


6

The short answer is--yes, there are many tone languages that express certain kinds of questions (usually echo questions or yes-no questions) intonationally, and more often than not the intonational contour is in some sense "rising". Before continuing it should be noted that there are documented cases of languages--tonal and non-tonal--that mark questions ...


5

There is no dichotomy between tone languages and intonation languages. The available evidence indicates that all languages have intonational systems. Some languages have lexical stress, some have lexical tone, and some appear to have no form of word "prominence" (Ethiopic Semitic, for example). Pitch-accent is a dubious category, which has largely been ...


4

There are a number of accounts of this fact. Without trying to go back to the earliest linguistic accounts of this, the Sound Pattern of English by Chomsky & Halle has a account of stress-levels, especially regarding the difference between words versus phrases. The basic generalization is that within a word, stress would go on the penult in words like ...


4

Here is an outline of what one would need to do to set up a ToBI system for some Kurdish language. I will make up somewhat hypothetical examples to make the point clearer. You first have to establish what the lexical contrasts are. You might find that there are two distinct words like [hɑɫo] "eagle" and [haɫu] "plum", which show that the vowels [o] and [u] "...


3

That is not what the difference between intonation and tone is. The list of physical primitives for tone versus intonation are probably mostly the same and is more than pitch (it includes duration and phonation: intonation also involves amplitude in a way that tone doesn't). Beyond that, the difference is about distribution, function, and especially "where ...


3

Some help may come from the earliest punctuation systems, which used a upward rising line to indicate a question (an early form of our question mark); the shape of this line is supposed to be a quasi-music note and to indicate to the reader that (s)he needs to fluctuate the voice. Granted these come from well into the common era and are mostly confined to ...


3

A very interesting and intriguing question. First one has to distinguish between open questions (Where have I put my car keys?) and yes-no-questions (Have I forgotten my car keys at your place?). In open questions the question is marked by interrogative adjectives, pronouns (τίς) or adverbs (ποῦ, πότε) which probably had a different pronunciation than their ...


2

That the last stress in a phrase is more prominent than preceding stresses in that phrase was the basis for the nuclear stress rule, see Chomsky, N., M. Halle and F. Lukoff (1956) On Accent and Juncture in English. In M. Halle, H.G. Lunt, H. McLean and C.H. van Schooneveld, eds. For Roman Jakobson: Essays on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. The Hague: ...


2

It refers to either a tone or an intoneme, where F0 starts high, decreases, then increases (sometimes known as a convex tone). We would have to wait for the invention of the intonogram to see what it looks like there, but you can see one on the pitch trace of any waveform display device or program that displays F0. It can in principle be used for all sorts ...


2

If by process you mean your transcription the answer is yes you can save your textgrids and load them back. about other works such as saving the sound selection you had like the picture below I must say No.


2

The "ripples on waves" (Bolinger 1964, Chao 1968) interaction that is observed in Mandarin is only one of several ways that lexical tone and utterance-level intonation may interact. I did a series of production experiments in which I elicited sets of utterances from native speakers of tone languages; the main two variables I manipulated were the tone on the ...


2

Praat has already a parser that can read Xwaves file. Open/Read > Read from special tier file > Read IntervalTier from Xwaves Then these labels can be transferred into TextGrid file. New > Create Textgrid


2

Based on the available information, the answer is, it depends on who "we" are and what you mean by "prosody". It appears that the idea is to extend ToBI style transcription to include non-pitch features of intonation, mainly lengthening but also laryngeal features if there are comparable effects. If you define "prosody" to refer just to intonation, then this ...


2

The meaning of those IPA letters is pretty open-ended: they stand for "global rise" and "global fall". If the overall intonation goes up, you pick one symbol, and if it goes down, you pick the other. You can't be more specific than that without specifying a particular language and tradition of analysis. There are many traditions for transcribing intonation ...


1

I assume that you are not asking how you, yourself, can talk slowly, you want to hear recordings stretched out. The first thing is to get the sound file itself, which in the case of Forvo is not trivial, but not impossible. Let's just assume that you have a sound file on your computer. The program Speech Analyzer has 'slowing down' as a built-in slider-type ...


1

The prosodic contours of a word will vary greatly, depending on how it is used. This might be because of neighboring words in the sentence, or the information content of the word (new vs. given information). This will also vary greatly depending on dialect. People are actively researching this, however. For example, this doctoral thesis Prosody modelling ...


1

This is a long-standing feature of various dialects outside the US. In the US, it was most strongly associated with Valleyspeak, although it is also a long-standing feature of North Dakota and Minnesota English (originating in Norwegian). It is now fairly standard across US dialects, but age- and gender-associated.


1

An 'intonation contour' graphs f0 vs time (and ignores power). The relation of avg f0 in an utterance, compared to the speakers avg f0 over a longer interval, gives information about emphasis or emotion. The relative changes in f0 during the utterance give information about syntax (question, etc). Since the relative changes are independent of avg f0, they ...


1

I personally believe that transcribing intonation within the level of phonetics is going to work because phonologically speaking our understanding of intonation is close to none and systems like ToBI aren't sufficient for complex systems like intonation.


1

It's just the default intonation contour in the absence of the focus pitch elsewhere. If you want to make contrast, your pitch accent (stress) will shift to the contrasted element: (1') They can conquer who BELIEVE they can, not just those who SAY they can. If you want to go into it in detail, Ladd's (1996) Intonation Phonology is a classic reference, I ...


1

Here are some definitions and discussion of relevant terms that hopefully might help clarify some of the linguistic concepts. I'm sorry for the excessive length, which I'll try to trim down as I organize these thoughts better. Pretty much all of the terms you've brought up refer to phonemic concepts, or theoretical elements of the organization of a language'...


1

The idea that language timing can be stress, syllable or mora is highly simplified, and it is actually false if taken to refer to phonetic facts about syllable length in actual speech. In real life, even in so-called "syllable-timed" or "mora-timed" languages, syllables or morae are often realized with measurably different lengths; and in so-called "stress ...


1

There is a phonetic concept of "timing" that relates to more or less constant units of duration in milliseconds, so that if a language is "syllable-timed" then you find more consistency of duration according to the number of syllables, but in a "stress-timed" language, stress units (e.g. the stressed syllable and the unstressed syllable after it) will be ...


1

You may find the Interactive Atlas of Romance Intonation (created by Pilar Prieto and others) to be helpful. It includes a whole bunch of useful resources and references, including interactive maps that allow you to click on a city and hear audio recordings of different utterances elicited from speakers in that city. Vocatives are one of the intonational ...


1

it is not an easy thing to state something is universal. However, there are trends of languages that have a phenomenon like 'final rising' to denote "Polar Questions". There are about 6000 languages around the world. We haven't gone deep on each and every language (i.e. we haven't intensively studied each portion of each component of the linguistic ...


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