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9

You have to a large degree answered the question yourself, really: clann is indeed a very early loan word. Like Common Celtic, Common Insular Celtic had no /p/, but it had /kʷ/. The Brythonic branch changed /kʷ/ to /p/ (keeping the labiality, losing the velarity) quite early on, whereas in the Goidelic branch, /kʷ/ merged with /k/ (retaining the velarity, ...


6

Most of these aren’t CELT-specific, but commonly used in manuscript editions everywhere. MS is a common English abbreviation for manuscript. The Latin is part of the manuscript. A very large percentage of mediaeval European manuscripts – and more or less all the Irish ones – are written either entirely in Latin or in some mixture of Latin and a local ...


5

The Constitution is bilingual, and the Irish version take precedence in case of conflict. Some Acts such as the Adoption Act 2010 are passed in English and Irish, but some are English only. Most are bilingual. I don't think any are passed only in Irish, but that's based on manual inspection.


4

Since you talk about the "original" Irish people, I'm going to assume you mean the original inventors of the script, who spoke an early Q-Celtic language in the fourth century CE. (Also note that Celtic is not my area of expertise, so others should comment to correct me if I say something wrong.) At this point, the twenty "classical" Ogham letters mapped ...


4

A quick look at Stair na Gaeilge yields this (in Kim McCone’s chapter An tSean-Gaeilge agus a réamhstair — “Old Irish and its prehistory”)… 21.2 … It can be seen that use is made of the suffix *-(i)yā to make abstract nouns in IE itself (e.g., Gr. phil-ó-s ‘beloved’, phil-ía ’fondness’). The -e (MW -ed) that descended from it was a common way of forming ...


4

There's an easy answer which is to check out the wikipedia page on the status of the Irish language. But the following is what I found with and outside the wikipedia article. Linguistic maps of Ireland show only the areas in the extreme west of the Gaeltaecht as having native Irish speakers. From Quora. Yes, I realize that the nominal definition of 'the ...


2

The spelling Aodhán reflects the Classical Irish pronunciation of: [e:ðˠɑ:nˠ] This evolved into: [i:ɑ:nˠ] in northern dialects and [e:gˠɑ:nˠ] in southern dialects. In Classical Irish the digraph "dh" conveyed [ð], however this sound was lost in everyday speech by the 14th century (although still taught to Bards in their seven year training so they ...


2

The most common pronunciation would be something along the lines of /e:ɔd̪ˠa:n̪ˠ/ amongst all the Irish speakers I've ever heard or spoken with "as Gaeilge", both Gaelgóirí and second language speakers. I don't know why the séimhiú (lenition) on the letter d is ignored in pronunciation, but I can't recall ever having heard it spoken. I tried to find an ...


2

I don't exactly understand the question, but it sounds like this is in the real of "I don't get it, what do I do" problems. This database has good word recordings in Connacht, Ulster and Munster Irish, which will allow you to hear differences side-by-side (with enough browser windows open). Unfortunately, they do not use the same speakers for a given dialect....


2

I am not certain what the question is, but if it helps, most Irish people start learning the language from the age of 4 or 5 so everyone is familiar with basic phrases, even though few of us speak it fluently. When we watch TG4 there are usually subtitles in English on the Irish-language programmes. Many English-speakers will choose to educate their children ...


2

What is considered a large enough sample size when being used to guide the creation of pedagogical resources such as foreign language courses and why? How large your corpus should be depends on what exactly you want to use it for, and what alternatives are available. If you want to know the 2,000 most frequent words of a language, a 1 M. word corpus will be ...


2

The answer depends on which definition of "phoneme" you use. Under the classical taxonomic definition, where you analyze actual sounds into a more abstract system, two sounds are allophones if their surface distribution is complementary, and if their surface distribution is contrastive, they are distinct phonemes. The concept of "conditioning environment" is ...


2

I've lived outside Ireland for well over 20 years but have been stuck in the country due to the pandemic. During the past few months, Irish has been on my mind for the first time since I left school, and I've been entertaining myself revising things I'd forgotten or never knew in the first place because, like most people, my Irish was never very good. ...


2

It depends on what you mean by "contrastive feature hierarchy". This particular combination of words does refer to an existing theory, promulgated by Elan Dresher, but there are similar approaches, going back to Halle's work on Russian in the 1950s. The word "hierarchy" is typically used to limit the discussion to theories where the ...


2

It's not clear if you're asking for programming instructions: I'll assume you don't literally want to know "how do I do it". "áras" and "baithis" appear to be OIr words (as you correctly predicted, the dictionary site is down). If you consult this page of Ogham letters, you will see that there is no letter "th" (and, there is no "h"), and no letter "á". But ...


1

The broad/slender contrast is one of (relatively) velarised vs palatalised consonants. Among native speakers, as far as I can tell, the entire consonant is either palatalised or velarised and any glides (on- or off-) are incidental, though often they're an important cue for us learners. Re "mar" and "mear", (listening to them on https://www.teanglann.ie) ...


1

Based on Bhaldraithe's description, I would transcribe it as [d͡ɹ̝̆ʲ] or [d͜ð̠̆ʲ]. One may call it a palatalized alveolar tapped affricate. (This is a narrow transcription. The tie bars and diacritics [˘ ˔ ˗] are better omitted in ordinary transcriptions to avoid clutter.) [ɾ] represents a coronal tap or flap, which means the tongue briefly touches the roof ...


1

Firstly, I'll assume that the way your first and last names are written reflect the official written standard, the Caighdeán Oifigiúil. This amounts to a single way of writing Gaeilge (Irish) even though it has numerous dialects with quite varied pronunciations. In this system the 'dh' in Aodhán would normally represent a voiced velar fricative (being in a '...


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