12

No. Plain and simple. But let's break down your question. There are several aspects to the whole idea of 'word in a language' that make the question a lot more difficult to formulate properly. In fact, I'd say that there's two quite distinct questions in here that would require quite different disciplinary approaches. Question 1. Is there a word that (...


9

I wouldn't say that mixed languages are particularly rare, we can observe them in language contact situations all over the world, as pidgins, creoles, and vernaculars of specific ethnic groups. But it is in the nature of most mixed languages that they aren't stable over time. Pidgins become creoles, and creoles often undergo decreolisation becoming a variety ...


9

The number of North Germanic loans in the East Slavic languages is rather low (the most critical estimate is around thirty). For example, Panzer 2002 mentions 34 words (V. Kiparsky) or 30 words (Struminski 1996), such as кнут, селедка, шелк, ящик etc.; the other words are not very common in present-day Russian, e.g. варяг, витязь, стяг, ларь, пуд, ябеда etc....


5

Areal features are often under-appreciated, especially the more subtle structural and semantic ones, as opposed to the more superficial lexical and phonological ones. And the contact between Slavic and Germanic was certainly significant, and started before the written record, which therefore makes it difficult to fully understand. And there are more ...


5

Whether Norwegians and Danes living in the same place would end up speaking 1 vs. 2 languages depends on the extent to which they remain culturally Norwegians vs. Danes, or simply generalized Scandinavians. Language is one of the most volatile distinguishing cultural features, as witnessed in North America by the loss of indigenous languages where other ...


4

There are some examples of language merger in history. Note that such a merger is rarely a "merger of equals" where both languages contribute about the same amount to the resulting merged language. Standard German is often sloppily described as "Southern German with Northern pronunciation", it has overtaken the formerly separate Low German language on a ...


4

The only Italian colony with any substantial settlement was Libya which mostly occurred in the 1930s. Just before WWII over 100,000 or 1/8 of the inhabitants were Italian settlers, or Italo-Libyans, many of whom left during and after the war. A common estimate for 1962 is 35.000 Italians in Libya. They were ordered to leave after al-Gaddafi took power, ...


4

If you look at phonetic implementation of these sounds, American English /ð/ is often pronounced a lot like an affricate [̪dð] when in onset position (not just in the stereotyped pronunciation of Chicago, but in other dialects as well). If a BP learner of English hears such a sound, it is unsurprising that they will classify it according to the closest ...


2

I asked my colleague Sally Thomason, whose book Language Contact has a special chapter on Sprachbunds. Her response: Interesting idea, John. Some of the shared features listed are underwhelming -- use of reduplication, for instance, and lots of CV syllables, and head-final structure: too common in languages of the world to be useful as diagnostics for a ...


2

prevent the emergence of mixed languages? jk makes a great point about the stability of the "mixed languages". However, stability is rarely seen in any established languages either. So called "Standard English" is always evolving, we just had iso and lockdown inducted into the formal lexicon this year, and each evolution of media and ...


2

The rounded vowels /y/ and /ø/ are realised as /i/ and /e/ in the Saxon dialect and used to be pronounced this way in Silesian and East Prussian dialects of German: This sound change is universal and happens everywhere around the world. It's just a simple delabialization. Taken alone, it doesn't prove anything. English had same reflexes, hence we have some ...


2

If I am not wrong, in some languages, the word for "mama" is used for other relatives rather than "mother", for example, "mama" means "father" in Georgian, also, "mama" means "grandmother" in Manchurian. Also, it is said that the Eyak language don't have bilabial consonants in native words, they probably don't even have words like "papa" and "mama" Also it ...


2

According to this, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pidgin "A pidgin /ˈpɪdʒᵻn/, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included. ...


2

The word peace (from the Old French ancestor of Fr. paix) replaced a few different words in Old English, some of which were of Old Norse origin. For example, peace has historically been used of a treaty or truce (e.g. the 1783 treaty between Britain and the newly-independent United States is called the "Peace of Paris"). In this sense, Old English used a ...


2

There are many examples of languages spreading more through cultural influence than through the force of arms: Koine Greek is an important cultural example for Western civilization. However, Koine Greek wouldn't have spread so quickly through Asia Minor without the conquests of Alexander. Likewise, the Louisiana purchase arguably reflects at least partly the ...


1

The answer is yes. They are called loanwords, more specifically popular borrowing - where the word used by the other culture is adopted without translation. Unlike learned borrowings that are often influenced by schooling or science, popular borrowings, popular in the sense of adopted by the masses, have always been the means to name something that does not ...


1

There were some towns in Northern Australia and Eastern New Guinea where the native Austronesian peoples switched from their native languages to Polinesian so as to better comunicate with the sea-faring traders (who were usually Polinesians). Swahili also expanded enormously in Eastern Africa once it became perceived as a language of trade, reaching far ...


1

Since (inter)dental fricatives are indeed not that easy to pronounce for those speakers whose native languages do not have these phonemes (or even those of them whose local pronunciational norm differs), there is a big statistical data of which mistakes and replacements are more common. Some of such "mispronunciations" are so common that there exists ...


1

Yes, there are a great many, especially in spoken language and in regional and archaic dialects. On average, there are more Turkish terms in spoken Armenian than Armenian in Turkish, and many many more that came from Persian into both Armenian and Turkish and many other languages, including English. Quite simply, Persian and Turkish were regional lingue ...


1

From a draft of Lawrence Trask’s Etymological Dictionary of Basque, with abbreviations expanded by me: hiri (Labourdin, Bas-Navarre), hí(r)i (Souletin), iri (Alta Navarra, Salazar, Roncalese), uri (Vizcayan, Gipuzkoan) noun ‘town’. 1545 (but see below). From *ili, of unknown origin, by rhotacism of /l/. Last form by Bizkaian /i/-backing. The Romans reported ...


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