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The loss of intervocalic -d- in Old French is a commonplace phenomenon. So there's nothing to conclude from *ioudaeus > Old French guiu, which probably was pronounced zhüiv as present-day juive f. "(she) Jew". The form juif m. was created to disambiguize m. from f. Note that your wikipedia source erroneously quote giu, a non-existing word. ...


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I think that the most prominent word of Greek origin in Latin, and from that into other European languages, is, in its English form, music. The list of other words of course is long, but if I had to choose one that corresponds to a most fundamental concept it would have to be music. There is also cosmos, energy, problem, again in their English forms, and so ...


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