17

The most accessible resource that explains the difference between each of these word similarity metrics would be Dan Jurafsky and James H. Martin's ubiquitous Speech and Language Processing 2nd Edition. Specifically, pages 652-667 in chapter 20 (Computational Lexical Semantics) briefly and comprehensively cover each metric/algorithm in a way that anyone ...


9

See and look are Sense Verbs. They are, in fact, the two distinct English sense verbs for vision. There are three varieties of English sense verbs, following the pattern of hear, listen, sound (only sense verbs of hearing have three distinct forms; sight has two, and the others one apiece) (Non-Volitional verb) I heard the song I saw the painting I tasted ...


8

Anna Wierzbicka wrote a chapter in her 1996 text Semantics: Primes and Universals on the semantics of colour terms. In this chapter she presents a theory where colours are understood according to their similarity to exemplars (a type of prototype theory). For example, here are two explications for the English colour terms red and yellow: X is red. = ...


7

The usual term is a co-hyponym. Here's a screenshot of Cann 2011: 459


7

This version of the etymological fallacy is easily disproved with false friends that have the same etymological root. Your claim is correct. For example, English embarassed and Spanish embarazado/a (which means pregnant in English). Charting the evolution of the derivative of Latin in- and some kind of Ibero-Romance word baraça (possibly from Celtic) is ...


6

This is probably not the kind of answer you are looking for, but I guess the following two points would have to be considered as strong indications that meaning is not computed from phonology. Polysemy (wood: the stuff a tree is made of as well as a collection of trees growing together) and homophony (pear, pair). This implies g is not a function. Also I ...


6

The problem with using etymology to infer the meaning of a word is that language is always changing, and how a word is used now is not necessarily how it has been used historically. Linguists do not choose the "correct" way to use a word, but rather record and explain language as it is used. If etymology can explain how a word's meanings boundaries make ...


5

Mother is not the antonym of father. They are co-hyponyms because they are both a kind of parent - and parent is the hypernym of mother and father. Antonymy is the relation that holds between parent and child. So by extension the antonym of mother could be said to be child. EDIT: After reading hippietrail's answer, I somewhat changed my opinion. If one ...


5

The examples you give aren't really cases of adjectives modifying noun, but cases of nouns modifying nouns. In the case of "The Penguin Wars", "Penguin" is called an attributive noun or a noun adjunct. Whereas the meaning of adjectives modifying nouns is usually more transparent (e.g. the meaning of blue in "the blue penguin" is pretty obvious), ...


5

The key to understanding is the difference between objects and names of objects: A meronom is a part. A meronym is the name of a part. A meronomy is a relationship between parts and sub-parts. Meronymy is a relationship between words. Mereology is the mathematical study of parts and wholes. It cares about mathematical objects, not about words. The kind ...


5

I don't think there is a theory-neutral term for the "super group" you're looking for—and I think the reason there isn't is that no such term would help the way you want it to. Pre-theoretically, I don't think there's a problem. Presumably French people just think they're putting the words "a", "t", and "il" together, right? It's only when you try to ...


5

You are making the erroneous assumption that "X is in language Y" is a claim that can be verified as true or false. For many combinations of text and language, of course it can be verified, but for many others it cannot. Note that I am not just restating your question: I am not talking about whether there is a test for verification (your question) but ...


4

They are Action Verbs versus Stative Verbs. Action verbs describe some effort a subject takes. In English, they are look, listen, and so on. Stative verbs describe state which a subject is in, regardless of whether or not he/she makes any effort to reach that state. In English, they are see, hear, etc. In English, there are also verbs that describe ...


4

The key point is the definition of meaning. This definition is probably not limited to linguistic. In fact many applications learn what we could call the meaning of things in completely different ways and for completely different objectives. In purely linguistic approaches the followings come to my mind: Clique detection in synonymy graph. Defining a word ...


4

The Natural Semantic Metalanguage is a controversial approach to semantics. The idea is that there is a limited set of semantic primes which are themselves undefinable and also universal. But with that set of primes, every other meaning can be defined/explicated. Conveniently, someone has already made an NSM definition for friend! These definitions are ...


4

The which is simply an alternate construction of the relative pronoun which (probably only introducing nonrestrictive relative clauses). the which: (archaic) a longer form of which, often used as a sentence connector Source: http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/the-which The construction has fallen out of habit -- Harper Collins marks it &...


4

Just found my old notes from grad school. It's not quite clear if your interest in telicity is historical (e.g. how did Dowty 19XX understand telicity?); obviously, a lot has been done since then. The following is based on Depraetere 1996. Tests to distinguish boundedness from unboundedness and telicity from atelicity (15a) John drank beer. (atelic, ...


4

The expression of family relations does not occur in a social vacuum: it is tied up with the cultural norms surrounding those relations. If you live in a society where the dominant norm is the nuclear family, then the distinction between (1) and (2) is socially fine print: as an adult, you interact with a sister and her husband as a nuclear unit, and with ...


4

Interestingly, it is so self-evident that the arbitrariness claim is true that nobody has experimentally verified the claim. But it would not be hard to do, if you have access to a captive subject pool. There are many procedures that could be followed, but the basic idea is to take recordings of actual words from various languages, present them (one at a ...


4

From Bokmålsordboka: miskunn m1 (norrøntmisskunn, egentlig 'det å ikke skylde en for noe', -kunn beslektet med kunne med eldre betydning 'skylde') særlig i religiøst språk: (Guds) nåde A translation into English: miskunn masc (norse: misskunn, actually "the state of not owing anyone anything", -kunn being related to kunne, having the older meaning "to ...


4

There are no objective absolute criteria for language-identification. There may, however, be subjective criteria, and there may be comparative criteria. Subjective criteria depends on one or more individuals declaring that some property of a language is, definitionally, either in or out. The criteria could be stipulated by an individual author (of a ...


3

There may not be a single origin; who knows. But the Greek word used is marked, and that does suggest a more explicit connotative meaning than what @Mitch described in his answer. Here's how I've described it elsewhere: http://hellenisteukontos.opoudjis.net/gtage-the-tsipras-edition-part-2/ Students of Ancient Greek, and particularly students of Koine, pay ...


3

I disagree with hippietrail's answer as I have not seen any dictionaries which describe this type of relationship as antonymy. For example: father, père. In Merriam-webster we have descendant as antonym, and in TLFi enfant. As such, I don't think considering these types of words as antonyms is a common point of view. In Semantics (1977, pp. 279—280), John ...


3

Yes, it can in fact be plural in most European languages. In French, Italian, German, Spanish, Russian et altri there are connaissances, conoscenze, Kenntnisse, conocimientos, знания... which are typically plural and translated into English as knowledge in many contexts. Note that most Germanic and Latin languages have a distinction between connaitre and ...


3

Sounds like you're referring to words such as "length". Is that what you mean, or are you looking for words that explicitly morphologically consists of a pair of antonyms for that? If the latter is the case, then Mandarin Chinese. The concept of "the degree of which" is commonly formed by pairing up the pair of antonyms. For example: "Magnitude" 大小 ...


3

They are quite similar, and you've isolated the main difference: semelfactive is once, iterative is many times. Although it is translated "aspect" here, it may not be a verbal property at all in some languages. It may be clearer to think of it is a form of lexical aspect, or Aktionsart (after Smith 1997), with the three (Vendlerian) properties: dynamic, ...


3

I think you answered your own question! "but" is used to […] indicate that the first clause is contrastive to the second in a way In your first example, "I am not a teacher" contrasts with "I am a student". In context, I'd imagine something like this: Alice, in a school: Excuse me, are you a teacher? I have some questions about the organization here. ...


3

Like in most cases of categorisation, Prototype Theory helps. There are exemplar texts of a language. I'm not actually an expert of Latin, but perhaps Cicero, Seneca, the Vulgate, and Aquinas could be considered to be exemplars of Latin, showing how the language has changed. Close to each exemplar text are the texts written in very similar style, by native ...


3

Very ironically, understanding etymology today to be "true word meaning" is commiting to the etymological fallacy. First, etymology is often uncertain and speculative, because speech in general. We can't be anymore certain about a words ancient usage than the scribe we learned it from. E.g.: The origin of Slav from slave is highly contested. Ignoring doubt ...


2

It's not an online resource, but NLTK provides several ways to get measures of semantic similarity: Several Wordnet-based options. Many of them are based on the path distance between synsets in the Wordnet graph. Many words obviously occur in more than one synset, so you need to choose at least a part of speech. nltk.corpus.reader.lin which provides ...


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