14

You used the very word yourself—the term is antedating. From OED documentation: Antedating is the technical lexicographical term for an earlier example of a word or sense. A postdating is a later example of a word or sense. An interdating is an example that fills a chronological gap in the quotation evidence.


11

"Basic form" is defined by the linguists working on a language, and not by the language itself. Heuristically speaking, the tendency is to find some form that best allows all related forms to be calculated by analogy. Some traditions don't limit the analysis to specific words, for example "roots" are not words, but Arabic linguistics uses ...


11

This is a complex topic but here's an attempt at an answer. My background is in describing and documenting relatively small, endangered languages, so I'll describe how it's done in that situation. I'll assume you have computers, software, internet, native speaking informants, recording equipment, and many years to spend on the work. Firstly, recorded texts ...


6

Typically, you don't ever really know for certain that you have the earliest example. Or even the earliest written example. It's just the best so far. (As a person who frequently writes answers to etymology questions on ELU, I try to make this clear. "According to the OED", "according to my own research", "dates at least back to X" are all things I say, but ...


6

I agree with your assumption that the date of the earliest recorded usage of a word does not necessarily correspond to the earliest usage of a word, since words may have been in circulation in spoken language before they were first used in publications, and many old publications have simply not survived. I touched upon this issue in my answer to the question ...


5

https://books.google.com.au/books?id=cbM4DwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=phone&f=false I'm flabbergasted that the Natural Semantic Metalanguage people have actually gone there, and tried to reinvent Basic English as Minimal English. I'm not surprised Cliff Goddard is behind the effort; he's always been an evangelist for ...


5

παλαιότερα is not "more ancient use", but "older". And that's significant: it can refer to an older Demotic form which is now obsolete. In fact, it is far likelier to be Demotic than Katharevousa. Learnèd forms (λόγιος) are indeed forms that (re-)entered Greek via Katharevousa, but have been accepted into Standard Modern Greek. αρχαιοπρεπής (archaic) is ...


5

The main problem is that most words cannot be translated one to one. For simple, concrete words like fire, it's less of a problem. But consider a word like up. It has many different senses that would all need to be translated into different words in those other languages: it can mean "upwards", "finished", etc. Or consider a word like certainly. It can mean "...


4

As OP clarified in the comments: Bilingual list is a dictionary. Therefore, the oldest dictionaries would be the cuneiform lexical lists. These are attested from close to 4000 BCE, and are extremely well-attested because they were used for practice at the edubba (scribal schools). Much like modern Japanese, Akkadian cuneiform used a large inventory of ...


4

Vocabulary.com's senses (and entries) are generally the same as WordNet's: compare with sound at wordnet.princeton.edu. Vocabulary.com has clearly done some filtering to make the entries less Weirdnet: note that there's no example sentence for "the audible part of a transmitted signal", which in WordNet is exemplified by "they always raise the audio for ...


3

If I'm remembering correctly, according to Atkins and Rundell (2008) [1], many projects build their own software, but there are also commercial packages such as TshwaneLex (http://tshwanedje.com/tshwanelex/). Atkins and Rundell (2008) go into some detail about the requirements of such software, so you may find their book helpful. They mention that there are ...


3

Aronson (1990) gives the following rules for stress-assignment in Georgian: less than 4 syllables in word -> stress on 1st OR antepenultimate syllable 5 or more syllables in word -> stress on 1st AND antepenultimate syllables Robins & Waterson (1952) give an alternative, less compact (but perhaps more readable) set of rules: 2 syllables -> ...


2

First of all your statement: In English, the lemma of a verb is the 3rd person singular form is incorrect. The 3rd person singular of an English verb would be "he asks", "he digs" and "he is". Id don't know any dictionary to use this form. So, it probable the infinitive rather than the 3rd person singular although in English it's hard to guess sometimes....


2

A caveat: I'm experiencing the tail end of a three day migraine. This answer may not be as clear as I'd like. The nature of the cognitive structures that make up linguistic knowledge is still a very open question. In fact, the nature of cognitive structures in general is still hotly contested (and rightly so). Before I answer your questions, I think a ...


2

I don't think speakers do determine this, or need to. A word has (usually) a number of meanings, and we learn these in context (and sometimes a new meaning appears). It is only lexicographers and other analysts who have any need to identify which of the meanings are literal or basic and which are not.


2

You might want to consider an approach based on the Least Common Subsumer, as described in this answer on Stack Overflow: https://stackoverflow.com/a/18631789/4067134. Basically, you'll look for the first (if any) shared hypernym (ancestor) in the WordNet hierarchy, or similar resource. Thinking in terms of biological ancestry: siblings share a parent, ...


2

It is not uncommon to detect word usage that predates the earliest attestation noted in the OED, for example in the Corpus of Early English Correspondence such earlier attestations were found. Of course, when really every written document from the past is digitised this process comes to an end unless some old writings are newly discovered.


1

Part of making a dictionary is getting it to look right on the page. Once upon a time, I guess, that would have done by a professional printer, but these days our local press wants camera-ready copy. I've formatted several dictionaries, so I know something about this end of it. I gather from your question that the actual printing does not particularly ...


1

The impact of technology for undescribed language lexicography is that it expands the set of languages for which dictionaries exist. This is due to two factors. First, computer technology makes it much easier to gather and organize the underlying data. Second, said technology makes it possible to disseminate materials which could not have been disseminated ...


1

A software programme you can also use is WordSmith Tools: http://www.lexically.net/wordsmith/version6/index.html This website has a list of software that can be useful for linguistics: http://linguistlist.org/sp/GetWRListings.cfm?WRAbbrev=Software There are multiple programmes listed for corpora exploration, which probably also includes freeware.


1

Try using the English Wiktionary. You can download a dump from here; look for enwiktionary. Its structure is quite straight-forward, so it should not be too much of a problem to automatically remove all of the non-English entries and re-format it in a structure you can use for your purpose. But, …, may I ask why do you want to create a multilingual online ...


1

See this WordNet entry for bus. The senses are already ranked according to how common they are. In addition to that, the first (optional) field, between parentheses, gives an indication of how frequently each word-sense was seen. Frequency of use is determined by the number of times a sense is tagged in the various semantic concordance texts. I don't know ...


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