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16

While this is a fair question, I think there are several factors which argue against Modern Hebrew being considered an artificial language: The degree of mutual intelligibility between the modern language and the ancient language tends to argue that these two are in fact the same language. The fact that the language, as "constructed", was specifically ...


13

Yes: Japanese, Farsi, and Basque are well-known examples. Japanese verbs (and adjectives) are closed class, with new verbal senses almost exclusively expressed by “do verbal noun”, as in 勉強する benkyō suru (studying do) for “study”. This is conspicuous in Japanese due to the large number of Sino-Japanese words, with verbal senses expressed in this way. Not as ...


10

Note, you have mentioned two strategies, not one: An action verb with an optional negative particle; A supplemental verb (as in do-support in English) with an optional negative particle. This one is wide spread in analytical languages, e.g. Thai: เขา เป็น คน ไทย [ใช่] ไหม he is person Thai is interrogative particle ไม่ ใช่ not is Note ...


10

Portuguese uses ordinal numbers to number five of the seven days of the week. Feira coincides with the term for fair, not the fair of fairy tales, but the fair that is an open-air market. But this is a distortion of the féria word, which means holiday. English name — Portuguese name — Portuguese name using ordinal digits — Literal English meaning — ...


9

With regard to this statement: "Igbo (Ibo), a language of approximately 18 million speakers in Nigeria, does not have verbs at all." There is a serious misunderstanding somewhere. Please note the following groups of verbs in the Igbo language (1) a limited number of simple verb roots (2) a combination of these "simple verb roots" to form "compound verbs" ...


9

The seven-day week is first attested in about the first century BC, in two different forms: the planetary week (where each day is associated with one of the seven visible planets) and the numbered week (where most of the days have the names of numbers, beginning with 1 = Sunday). The planetary week is first attested in Rome, while the numbered week appears ...


8

How about აფალინა /apʰalina/? the Black Sea bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ponticus)? It is/used to be common in the Black Sea and has a similar name in (all?) languages bordering on the Black sea: afalina (Turkish), афала (Bulgarian), afalin (Romanian), афаліна (Ukranian), афалина (Russian).


8

This is of course highly debated, but some linguists would answer yes, there is a small set of words/concepts common to all natural human languages. The major theory currently representing this view is the Natural Semantic Metalanguage, which posits that there are around 66 core 'semantic primes' which are both irreducible and universal. These primes are ...


6

I know practically nothing about Hebrew. My answer is based on your claim, "a lot of the things virtually not present in at least two millennia have been given words that were literally invented". There are two classes of words, open class and closed class. Open classes accept the addition of new morphemes (words), through such processes as compounding, ...


6

The word აფალინა /aphalina/ is a word of Greek origin, derived from φάλλαινα, "whale". This word came from Greek φαλλός which in late Greek meant "penis" due to similar shape of the whale. This word in turn came from PIE root bhel- "to swell, blow".


5

Do either of these terms have definitive definitions among linguists? No. I have yet to meet structural categories in linguistics that have single, universally agreed upon definitions. Even "word" is not strictly defined in any way. You can compare terms only within the same framework. "Mediopassive" is a term used generally in historical linguistics for a ...


5

Greek is using numbering as well for 4 out of 7 days. Those are: Monday (δευτέρα / 2nd) Tuesday (τρίτη / 3rd) Wednesday (τετάρτη / 4th) Thursday (πέμπτη / 5th) However, there is no numbering for months.


5

In Hebrew, the weekdays are called: יום ראשון First day יום שני Second day יום שלישי Third day יום רביעי Fourth day יום חמישי Fifth day יום שישי Sixth day שבת Day of rest That is, Sunday is literally "First day" and all the days follow from there. Saturday is "Day of rest".


5

The language you're thinking of could be Enga. It's got all these existential verbs, depending on the referent! kata- occurs with subject NPs whose typical referents are judged to be tall, large, strong, powerful, standing or supporting, e.g. ‘men’, ‘house’, ‘tree’, ‘sun’, and ‘leg’ (lexical meaning ‘to stand’). pita- occurs with subject NPs whose ...


5

The Handbook of the IPA is the basic reference source on the IPA, though you can get online copies of the chart which is what most people are satisfied with, e.g. here. You may want to specifically read Alec Pongweni's book Studies in Shona phonetics: an analytic review. It provides various examples in IPA transcription, although it also cites data in ...


4

Yes, this usage has been around for a long time and you're missing out. A simple look at Google's Ngram viewer shows that the rate of occurrence for both "think that" and "thinking that" have held relatively consistent since 1800. Granted, Ngram Viewer only has data up to 2008, but it does suggest that the progressive construct "thinking that..." is not ...


4

What happens is that when we use a normally stative predicate in a construction like progressive or imperative that requires an active predicate, we are signalling that what we are actually referring to is some action associated with the normally stative predicate. So what Rodin's bronze statue is doing is thinking. This means doing something that gives the ...


4

There is a term for this, namely "light verb", which may help you to Google examples. This is actually separate from the question of verbs being a closed class. Such constructions are common in Kurdish and Indic languages (and Farsi per Nils von Barth, so see this for focus on Indic), and some Bantu languages. Korean starkly contrasts with Bantu languages in ...


4

In Swedish you use "Ja" to positively answer a positive question and "Jo" to positively answer a negative question. Nej is used otherwise. http://www.thelocal.se/blogs/theswedishteacher/2011/01/21/ja-eller-jo/


4

Factors that might lead to the emergence of synonyms include Language contact Specialised vocabulary for particular fields (medicine, law, hip hop culture, ...) Vibrant literature, particularly poetry Geographical dispersion/dialect diversity 1. Language contact Language contact often leads to the borrowing of words. While these might fill a lexical gap, ...


4

The answer to the question will likely vary from grammarian to grammarian. My short answer is that distribution is a necessary condition for identifying nominals and morphological criteria, e.g. plural -s, are sufficient. To be classified as a nominal, a given token of a lexical item must be able to appear in a position that is associated with nominals. In ...


3

You haven't mentioned, which Hebrew you mean and what format you expect. Presuming, you are interested in the Modern Israeli Hebrew and that the format is not so important, the best choice would be (Hebrew-Hebrew) Even-Shoshan Dictionary: it includes both words in vocalized form and in ktiv male; plural and smikhut forms are provided for nouns, and basic ...


3

This is a bit of a philosophical question, but I agree with your reasoning: in theory, or in principle, a language could contain an infinite number of different morphemes (one of which might have to have an infinite length, but that doesn't matter). However, in practice, one observes that the number of new, intelligible sentences recorded on the Internet ...


3

There are many languages wherein the part of speech category 'verb' (inflecting for person-number and TAM) is a closed class. These languages are common in north Australia, some having as few as five verbs and others up to 250. In New Guinea this is a common feature of languages of the Trans New Guinea language family, which typically have 60–150 verbs. ...


3

Czech names for "Thursday" and "Friday" are "Čtvrtek" and "Pátek," based on the words fourth ("čtvrtý") and fifth ("pátý"). The name for "Tuesday" is "Úterý," which I believe is based on the Russian for second, "второ́й" (not certain on this one). As for months, Latin should qualify, with names like September, October, November and December (based on 7, 8, ...


3

Latvian language names weekdays as Monday - 'first-day' (pirmdiena), Tuesday - 'second-day' (otrdiena) etc except for Sunday which is named svētdiena, literally 'holy-day'. Slavic languages also have some (not all) weekday names derived from numbers - for example, in Russian Tuesday / Вторник is derived from второй (second), Thursday / четверг from четыре (...


3

Vietnamese uses numbers for both months and weekdays January: Tháng 1 February: Tháng 2 ... December: Tháng 12 For weekdays Monday → Thứ hai (2nd day of week) Tuesday → Thứ ba (3rd day of week) Wednesday → Thứ tư (4th day of week) Thursday → Thứ năm (5th day of week) Friday → Thứ sáu (6th day of week) Saturday → Thứ bảy (7th day ...


3

The easier part first: Using Janko Gorenc's collection of numbers, I was able to find that the Indonesian and Malay word for 14 is empatbelas or empat belas (empat on its own means 4), and the Maltese word for 14 is erbatax, which are both confirmed by Wiktionary. Finding the word for eleven was much more difficult. I've found this page which claims that ...


3

Insofar as Linnean binomial nomenclature is in Latin and they are cooking up new names all the time, yes, and apparently it is expanding to galaxies. Here is a list of Latin computer terms (English to Latin translation). As with English, there isn't a single pronunciation (< principi > = [printʃipi, printsipi, priŋkipi]), so expect variation. For example, ...


3

Languages usually mark those differences that the culture they're part of consider important, and downplay or erase those that don't seem that important to the speakers. I would expect the languages of primitive cultures (meaning less technological, less urban, historically ancient, etc.) to mark more, not less, distinctions among animals (but see below), as ...


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