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In Arabic, all consonants, including /r/, can be geminated in non-initial position. There are minimal pairs like barada "he was cold" vs barrada "he cooled (something)".


In Hungarian, all consonants have long and short versions, and there are many minimal pairs. Examples: pára /paːrɒ/ "fog/steam/condensation" | párra /paːrːɒ/ "onto the pair" vére /veːrɛ/ "his blood" | vérre /veːrːɛ/ "to blood" ara /ɒrɒ/ "macaw" | arra /ɒrːɒ/ "that way"


In Finnish, most consonants including the [r] have a long-short distinction. There are plenty of minimal pairs including varas (thief) vs varras (skewer).


According to Wikipedia, Slovak does contrast /r/ and /rː/, but the Journal of IPA on Slovak says that the geminated /r/ (i.e. /rː/) is considered an allophone of /r/ because there are no minimal pairs of /r/ and /rː/. They're not in complementary distribution: the geminated /r/ ‘can only occur in the syllable nucleus’, the short /r/ ‘in the nucleus and ...


(Due to finding a source that I think provides an even better example than my previous answer, I've updated this post). Arop-Lokep In “Initial and Medial Geminate Trills in Arop-Lokep,” by Raymond, Mary, and Steve Parker (Journal of the International Phonetic Association, vol. 35, no. 1, 2005, pp. 99–111. JSTOR, Accessed 17 ...


In many dialects of Pashto, xʷ only occurs in clusters. It only occurs in clusters (mostly before [r ~ ɾ] and [l]). It never occurs alone and contrasts with x (and xw in some words) for example /xre/ means “(you're a) female donkey” and /xʷre/ [with rising intonation] means “(are you) eating?”. Some other examples and minimal pairs are: [xʷrɐm] “(I am) ...

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