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6 votes
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What's the difference between metonymy, meronymy, meronomy and mereology?

The key to understanding is the difference between objects and names of objects: A meronom is a part. A meronym is the name of a part. A meronomy is a relationship between parts and sub-parts. ...
5 votes
Accepted

Is there a linguistic notion of a "static" vs "dynamic" noun?

In the philosophy of language and modal logic, the conceptions you label "static" and "dynamic" are called rigid designator and flaccid designator respecively.
5 votes
Accepted

What do the semicolon and period mean in semantics?

The semicolon in ∀;y is surely a typo. It should just be ∀y, just like the ∀x that precedes it. A period is often used to introduce the scope of a variable binding expression like ∀x, e.g. ∀x.φ. By ...
5 votes

Which famous linguists embrace historical logic to understand language?

You (and the source) are confusing the technical and colloquial sense of the word logic here. When you say There's a certain logic to language. or Even language is logical. you're saying something ...
5 votes

Is Hebrew more efficient and more grammatically logical than English?

The short answer is no, all languages are about equally efficient. All natural languages are under a similar evolutionary pressure, to communicate information efficiently. Speakers need to convey ...
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5 votes

Formalizing Natural Languages

This is a ridiculously complicated area, and the need to eventually narrow down your interest is a high priority. I would start with classical generative syntax as practiced by Noam Chomsky, and I ...
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5 votes

What is the difference between an implicature and a presupposition

The standard definition, as in the one you'll come across in introductory semantics classes, is that presuppositions have to be true, while implicatures are probably true. For example, imagine that I ...
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4 votes

On donkey sentences: why is this formalization incorrect?

The English sentence "every man who owns a donkey beats it" can be interpreted as "every man beats every donkey that he owns", which makes no implication that anything exists. It ...
4 votes
Accepted

On donkey sentences: why is this formalization incorrect?

Your formula means that every man owns a donkey that he beats, which is not what the original sentence means.
4 votes

Conditional clauses, use of 'if, then, else' in major non-English languages?

In many languages, for example Bengali, the word comparable to if is optional and frequently absent, whereas the word marking the apodosis (usually with a similar function to then) is mandatory, ...
3 votes
Accepted

Discrepancy between Classical Logic, Set Theory, Propositional Logic and Languages

There are two different answers, depending on the environment. In certain contexts (logical formulae, programming languages, legal documents, Magic: the Gathering cards), avoiding ambiguity is very ...
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3 votes
Accepted

How did the Latin stem '-duce' evolve to mean 'from an effect'?

Your question has some false presuppositions. In general, when trying to understand the historical relationship between words of English that seem to historically share a root, where Latin in the ...
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3 votes
Accepted

When are 'or' and 'unless' exclusive in (daily) English?

Linguists generally distinguish literal entailment vs. pragmatic implicature. As for literal entailment, "A or B" mean "A or B" and if A and B both happen to be true, that's okay ...
  • 70.1k
3 votes

What is the difference between an implicature and a presupposition

The question is a bit like asking "What's the difference between a wardrobe and a chair" - well, they are just two different things... A presupposition is, simply put, something that must be ...
  • 6,075
2 votes

How does 'unless' mean 'or' or 'if not'?

When glossing a logical proposition with English words, we are not really using the English language system; it's just a way to represent the unambiguous mathematical concepts in a mnemonic and easy-...
  • 16.7k
2 votes

How did the Latin stem '-duce' evolve to mean 'from an effect'?

The roots of classical logic lie in Ancient Greece. Because of this, many Latin terms dealing with philosophy and logic were either taken from Greek, or modeled after the structure of Greek words (...
  • 16.7k
2 votes

Are there uses of linear logic in linguistics?

Yes, linear logic has close connections with Lambek/categorial grammar. The big picture is basically that, with respect to a Lambek/categorial grammar, a proof of the syntactic category of a phrase of ...
2 votes
Accepted

How does 'unless' mean 'or' or 'if not'?

Start with 2.: A unless B = A, if not B A, if not B = if not B then A In general, if x then y = not x or y (for the "material implication" of logic) So, if not B then A = not not B or A (from the ...
  • 12.2k
2 votes

How can I represent "I sometimes pet bunnies" using lambda functions?

There seem to be three issues here. (1) Why is "I sometimes pet bunnies" second order, in view of the fact that it seems to mean about the same as "I pet bunnies"? What is the second order logical ...
  • 12.2k
2 votes
Accepted

If we can only translate declarative sentences into symbolic logic, then how is symbolic logic useful for linguistics?

David Lewis' account of the logic of imperatives is in terms of the possible worlds in which the imperative is obeyed. Here is a handout for a class which extensively deals with the formal semantics ...
  • 70.1k
2 votes

Truth-conditions of predicate-logic formulas for donkey sentences

a) Correct. Some fine-tuning to your answer: The donkey that Jake owns in own(j,x), is not the same donkey that was beaten in beat(j,x). It is not necessarily the same. Depending on which ...
  • 6,075
2 votes
Accepted

Motivation behind the definition for existential quantifiers such as *some* in compositional semantics

The reason is as follows: For ALL we need "for all objects, if they are P, then they are also Q". If we would use logical AND, it would mean "for all objects, they are P and they are Q" which is ...
  • 251
2 votes

What is the best/state-of-the-art logic for representing English language?

The wording of your question seems to imply an equivalence between first order predicate logic and higher order logics. They are not equivalent. First order predicate logic was shown to be ...
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2 votes

directed graph representation of LF

Yes. See Arc pair grammar....
  • 12.2k
2 votes

Conditional clauses, use of 'if, then, else' in major non-English languages?

As for the order of things: "In conditional statements, the conditional clause precedes the conclusion as the normal order in all languages. (...) (Greenberg 1963: 84, #14) (https://typo.uni-...
  • 638
2 votes

(how) do natural languages distinguish classes and instances of things?

In some theories of epistemology, the distinction between class and individual is not strict, for example the class "mammal" is composed of individuals such as "dog; cat; human; horse&...
  • 70.1k
2 votes

What is the purpose of "x" in the Venn-diagrams depicting categorical propositions?

The "X" means that the set is not empty. In other words, there exists at least one member of that set. The idea being, I imagine, that putting an "X" in that area indicates that ...
  • 54k
1 vote
Accepted

truth condition of 'uniqueness' in the (neo) Russellian theory

The existential quantifier doesn't mean "one", it means "at least one". So ∃x(student(x) ⋀ met(j,x)) translates as "John met at least one student". This formalization is ...
  • 6,075
1 vote

Predicate logic and always?

Predicate logic is an approximation of some functions of language, and does not cover all use cases. Traditionally, it doesn't really account for time (with just entities, there isn't a good way to ...
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1 vote

How to write 'x said they would do y but...' in predicate logic?

Bart said to Lisa that he would braid her hair today, but he chopped his hand off yesterday. (SAY (BART,           (INTEND (BART,           ...
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