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9

It is difficult to pin-point the exact source because there don't seem to be any etymological dictionaries of Malay just yet. This is purely speculative, but the word for 'Dutch' in Portuguese is 'holanda', whose pronunciation is nearly the same as 'Belanda'. The Malays could've borrowed the word from the Portuguese during the struggle between Malacca, the ...


4

I don't think this is really a bad question - food terms can be the sort of words that can travel readily between languages (Wanderwörter). Consider ketchup, sugar, ginger, tea. In this case, though, the relation between L garum and May garam does seem to be a coincidence. Or at least, there is no recognized etymology which connects them that I can find. ...


4

What more is there to say? It's a coincidence, to the best of our knowledge, and statistically not an unlikely one. Garum comes from Greek γάρος; its etymology is unknown, but the Greek word in the nominative already looks quite different from garam just by virtue of its inflection. The chances of being able to find two unrelated languages where the ...


3

The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database indicates that the Malay term was originally garam sira 'grain of salt', and sira and similar forms are widely attested for 'salt' at proto-levels in various subgroups (Blust reconstructs *qasiʀa for Proto-Austronesian). I think this makes a Latin origin more than unlikely.


2

The languages with the most loanwords from English: There are several candidates, depending on how you define "loanword" (which is not quite clear in the case of creoles), "language" (as opposed to a dialect), and how you define "South-East Asia" (does Papua New Guinea belong to it?). In general, there are quite a few South East Asian countries where English ...


1

This would be the results for an automated lexical comparison of the constants for the Beaufils № 18 word list; Eye, Ear, Nose, Hand, Tongue, Tooth, Death, Water, Sun, Wind, Night, Two, Three, Four, I, You, Who & Name. |AI|CB|ID|JV|MY|TG|TS|MR|SA|TA|CC|CM|TB|BU|GL|BY|LO|SH|TH|VN|KH|KN|ML|TM|TL| |00|75|89|80|74|78|78|84|85|84|81|93|89|85|84|70|77|79|77|...


1

In “An Unabridged Malay-English Dictionary” by R.O. Winstedt, the entry for Belanda has Hollander, Dutch; European. The addition of European might suggest a more general description of white people than just the Dutch. The entry gives two examples of usage that reinforces the possibility that Belanda is closer to white/pale/bland than Hollander: Batu Belanda ...


1

Look to see if it has a subject. Clauses with subjects are finite; those without subjects are nonfinite. This criterion was once proposed by my friend Stan Starosta. Works for me, for English, though I think he intended it more generally.


1

Italian Italian: (Che) cosa mangi? Gloss: (what) thing you-eat The in-situ wh-phrase is not used ('Mangi cosa?' seems akward). The register is either informal (che ommitted) or formal. More often found in progressive form: Cosa stai mangiando? Sorry but the mandarin part is a bitmap because of this. Please feel free to comment and I will amend/...


1

I don't know enough linguistics to answer your second question, but the pseudocleft question formation reminds me of the way formal questions are formed in French. Declarative French: Tu manges une crêpe. Gloss: you eat a crepe Informal interrogative (wh-in-situ): French: Tu manges quoi? Gloss: you eat what? Formal interrogative (preposed): French: Qu'...


1

The Malay textbook I have (Дорофеева, Т. В.; Кукушкина, Е. С.. Учебник малайского (малайзийского) языка. М. Академия гуманитарных исследований, 2006) does use a special IPA symbol for the word-final h and the one between different vowels: boleh /boleʰ/, tahu /taʰu/. See page 26. The textbook is very detailed in its phonetic part and uses the IPA to explain ...


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