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The variability of nasalization in such sequences is "well known" (in Greek linguistic circles). This article investigates the question instrumentally, in Thessalonikan and Cretan dialects. The conclusion to be drawn from this study is "yes, no, and all points in between", w.r.t. the question of whether there is prenasalization, that is, ...


4

This isn't specific to γγ, it is a general phenomenon of modern Greek pronunciation of voiced plosives, which are also spelled μπ ντ γκ. I don't have first-hand experience, but according to linguistic sources I've read, Greek has two series of plosives: voiceless and voiced. A plosive from the voiced series has no prenasalization when utterance-initial or ...


4

This phoneme /ṽ/ appears to be common to both Common Brittonic and Old Irish, and shows the difficulties that the contemporary scribes for Old Irish had with notating nasalisation. As of January 2021, Wiktionary transcribes it for Common Brittonic as /β̃/ but Old Irish with /ṽ/. The difference between the two being merely a notation difference is mentioned ...


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There is no phonetic difference, but there is also no phonetic unity supposed ᵐb / mb are pronounced in many different ways across languages. On occasion, there is an audible contrast between two such things, which is usually based on some durational facts, with the nasal being of different durations. Swahili and Sinhalese are examples of languages with two ...


2

Standard IPA certainly would use a tilde over the vowel instead. But use of superscript "n" for nasalisation is often seen, e.g. in the most common systematic romanisation of Xiamen and Taiwanese Hokkien Chinese, pe̍h-ōe-jī. What semi-nasalisation means in this case has to be put into context with "full" nasalisation in standard French pronunciation. ...


2

As I understand your excerpt, they are talking about nasalization. Nasalization is transcribed with this symbol (upper tilde): ẽ. You can add parenthesis to indicate that it is a partially nasalized vowel: ⁽ẽ⁾ (see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensions_to_the_International_Phonetic_Alphabet)


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The difficulty in seeing the solution derives from the theory of classifying groups of sounds. You can see that [i u] do not become nasal, and [a e o] do, but how do you encode that in a rule. One (bad) solution is to simply list the three letters that do nasalize, and forego any generalization of what the one class of sounds have in common. So you need a ...


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Cohn 1990 in her UCLA dissertation (Phonetic and Phonological Rules of Nasalization) compares English, Sundanese and French w.r.t. airflow. Nasal airflow during vowel production in these languages are (1) entirely predictable from local physical context, "partial" and quite gradient, (2) the result of an abstract rule and (3) underlying as well as ...


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