8

Well, the Dacians spoke a language called Dacian. Unfortunately, there is almost nothing we really know about their language, there are no surviving inscriptions or other texts. Essentially all we have are some toponyms and personal names, and a list of about five dozen plant names (see, e.g., https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Dacian_plant_names). With ...


6

I will first answer to the title of the question, namely "What is the substrate of Romanian language". Romanian could have several substrate layers. The most frequent one is the Dacian layer, which was the language spoken in the region of Romania prior to the adoption of Latin. Dacian was an Indo-European language for which we have very limited material (...


5

The idea of mother tongue can break down when you have more than one language learned by the child. Multilingual families are often the ones who see this the most. There are various labels for all the different functions of each language, e.g. "dominant language", "first language", but I think "mother tongue" and "native language" are the only ones that are ...


5

Learner corpus It seems that you're looking for what's commonly called "learner corpus", i.e. data that's written by people of various skill who don't speak the target language natively but are at various proficiency levels of learning it. There are many such resources for English, the largest of which seems to be the Cambridge Learner Corpus, however, it ...


4

The Original Poster's examples don't imply anything very different from each other. However, the general question of whether or why it matters where we put the negation in a sentence is quite interesting—especially in relation to certain verbs: It is a fact known to millions of hardworking English language students all over the world that native English ...


4

As the other answers have pointed out, "natural" is not a category that is used in linguistics. However, there is a cross-linguistic tendency for plurals to be formed by the addition of a morpheme to the singular - i.e. plurals tend to be longer than singulars. Apart from that, as a Czech speaker you might find some plural forms in other Indo-European ...


4

A distinction is sometimes made by some speakers (who are not usually fluent English speakers), who treat "mother tongue" compositionally rather than as a technical term meaning (well, that in itself is a problem) "native language" or "first language", often labeled "mother tongue". For example, "My mother tongue is Pare and my father tongue is Gogo". ...


4

You have to first determine how you are going to define "L1", which isn't a scientific term in linguistics. It sort of stands for "first language", in which case Russian is your L1. Though perhaps Hebrew is the first language you became fluent in, suggesting another definition. A third possibility is "dominant" ("number one", not first), so from what you say ...


3

There is no non-pathological possibility of a person not having a native language, so such a rhetorical statement amounts to saying that it's hard to decide which of many languages is one's "best" language. However, there are instances of people who have no language, at some point (when they would have normally acquired a language), for instance Genie. The ...


3

How is "L1" used in these texts you're reading? Is it a) about the influence of the L1 on the syntax and pronunciation of the L2? b) is it just about the L2 label for a new adult learned language? c) is it about cognitive development in children? For a and c it is complex and you are a very special case. For b, it's just about difficulties in learning ...


3

Some think that the Romanian substrate was a language related to modern-day Albanian, but I'm not sure how solid the evidence for this connection is. For example, Romanian viezure "badger" and Albanian vjedull "badger" seem to be related (neither is clearly of Latin origin), but it is unknown if they are from a common substrate, or if the word came to ...


3

There is no straightforward definition of what constitutes a native speaker. This is partly because there's no straightforward definition of what constitutes a language. There are vast differences between the ability of even highly educated monolinguals to utilize the complete resources of a given language. Once you factor in education, register and dialect, ...


3

That's just some misconception. The arbitrariness of sound-meaning correspondence is one of the most uncontroversial things in linguistics. There isn't anything 'natural' about the form in the language, these are purely formal aspects of sound and its mapping to meaning. Nor is there anything universal about the (phonological) form of inflectional ...


2

This question ties into a wider sociolinguistic discussion of the cultures, traditions and customs around naming in general. The balance between conventionalisation and uniqueness / identifiability in names is a sociological construct, a function of how names are perceived in a culture, whilst the transparency and "salience" of a name is a more purely ...


2

I suspect that there are not any good studies that will give you a comprehensive answer. You might be able to find a compilation of official national educational policies that covers a sufficient number of countries, but official policy and reality are different things. For example, policy used to be in Tanzania and AFAIK still in Kenya that for one or two ...


2

“Hund” ~ “Hündin” is like “Mann” ~ “Männer”, or, in English, “man” ~ “men”. These all illustrate what is called “Umlaut”, the fronting of the stem vowel before a suffix with a front vowel. There is nothing “natural” about it. It is however a wide-spread phenomenon in the Germanic branch of Indo-European.


1

Anecdotally, no (but research does concur with my account, for example the Handbook of Bilingualism has many relevant chapters). I have been raised a native Hindi and English speaker from birth, and I have a General American accent in my English and a standard Delhi Hindi accent. I can use both languages idiomatically, but, as a commenter mentioned, code-...


1

The most widely accepted definition of "first language" is the languages acquired within the the so-called critical period - a period in which children are highly sensible for the development of linguistic competences - in which one's mother tongue is usually acquired, or conversely, everything which is learned after one's first langauge is fully acquired is ...


1

All native speakers possess knowledge of at least spoken form of the language. But of course there can be difficult areas especially in written form. In Russian for instance, native speakers often experience problems with punctuation: where should or should not be placed a comma. This is quite difficult topic even for the well educated. Another difficult (...


1

To sum it up: Romanian substrate is more complex than what the formula Romanian=Latin+Dacian might suggest, and Romanian is not just "Latin spoken by Dacians". The Dacians by themselves (and their language) do not count for the entire Romanian « substrate » (linguistic or otherwise). In this sense, the substrate of proto-Daco-Romanian (the neo-Latin ...


1

It has been famously shown (by Emmanuel Dupoux, among others) that the ability to differentiate phonemes markedly decreases after the age of 2. Consequently, you presumably have less ability to distinguish the phonemes of English which are absent in Hungarian that someone who was born and raised in an English-speaking family. In that sense, you might not be ...


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