4

Well, the basics are the same: all languages have consonants and vowels, and always more consonants than vowel qualities. All of them have verbs and, slightly controversially, all of them have nouns. The reason for the controversy is that some languages have nouns that look and behave a bit like verbs. All languages have syntax, the core words for body ...


4

No, natural language is not a formal system. Some rather interesting theories about natural langages are formal systems. But to confuse a theory with the phenomena that it is a theory of is incoherent, in my opinion. Did Newton propose that our solar system was a differential calculus? Of course not. He invented the latter to describe the former. Is it ...


4

The author has mistaken language and grammar, and that criticism isn't valid for any period of generative phonology. Grammar is a cognitive ability which can be modeled as a particular kind of formal system. Language is a kind of behavior that is the product of a number of cognitive and physical systems, one of which is grammar. The viewpoint expressed by ...


4

The most famous example of a phenomenon which seems to argue against the context-freeness of natural language is cross-serial dependencies in Swiss German (Schieber, '85) (cross-serial dependencies can also be found in Dutch). Two facts about Swiss German are relevant here: Objects are case-marked (dative and accusative), diff. verbs sub-categorise for ...


3

Any linguistic answer to this question has to be at least partly theory laden. There are many approaches to linguistic universals. The most general points would be: 1. All natural languages can be acquired by people born into a community of speakers, or learned by people as a second language (with well-known limitations). 2. The propositional content of ...


2

I think that some research has been done on artificial languages, but Linguistics mostly deals with natural languages and especially with spoken language. Written language is not totally excluded but sounds, sound shifts occur in spoken language, not to mention that this is where language evolves the fastest. It's true however that there are many aspects ...


1

First, a word about what a phoneme is: a phoneme is "a sound" which a language uses as one of its primitive elements for constructing utterances. For instance /p/ in "paper, spit". It turns out that there are physical differences between the three kinds of p in those words, and those physical differences are excluded when coming up with the list of phonemes ...


1

The Bavarian Archive for Speech Signals, a CLARIN-D centre, has lots of corpora containing the acustic signal, phonetic transcription (in SAMPA), and orthographic transcription (that's what you call lexicalic in your question). Here is a list of the available resources.


1

You have two input choices: 1. analyze dictionaries (wordnet, worknik or wiktionary), 2. use word embeddings (word2vec, glove, elmo). Use this data with a WSD (word sense disambiguation) solution. Search github for WSD. Also, this is worth looking at: https://blog.openai.com/discovering-types-for-entity-disambiguation/


1

The Chomsky Hierarchy, which starts with simple automata and works it's way up the complexity scale to Turing machines, describes regular, context-free languages. In this sense, "regular" means rule-based and "context-free" means that everything you need to know about the communication is available in the language. Programming languages behave this way ...


1

The simple answer to your question is YES - linguistics is NOT limited to 'natural' languages. While professional linguists mostly deal with naturally occurring languages spoken by people for daily communication, the field of linguistics is concerned with all symbolic systems used to express meaning for some sort of a communicative purpose. So there are ...


1

Linguistics is just the scientific study of language. This definition does not limit the scope of "language" to just natural languages. "Language" is, loosely, a means of communication of information, i.e., from one entity to another. Many different kinds of entities communicate with each other. Many plants and animals seem to have vocabularies. However, the ...


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