13 votes
Accepted

What is the dash or hyphen in reconstructed words in PIE?

In reconstructions, hyphens indicate boundaries between morphemes (e.g. between the root, and any prefixes, suffixes, or endings). In this particular case the reason you're coming across this is ...
Tristan's user avatar
  • 8,195
13 votes
Accepted

What is "=" in transcriptions of Hittite

Your guess is correct; the equals sign/double hyphen separates clitics from the words they attach to. For example, from the Ten-Year Annals (KBo 3.4 ii 65): nu=us=si=kan widār arha dahhun Then I ...
Draconis's user avatar
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10 votes

Where this notation comes from and what it means

Wilson's answer is great, but I'd like to clarify one point. As a general rule, hyphens separate morphemes in the source language, and dots separate morphemes in the target language that aren't ...
Draconis's user avatar
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8 votes
Accepted

Where this notation comes from and what it means

Some of your examples have switched the roles of dots and of hyphens. It seems like it.is.dot.separated to some degree That's right. We want to use spaces to mark word boundaries, so we need some ...
Omar and Lorraine's user avatar
6 votes

What does a tilde between angle brackets mean?

A tilde generally indicates alternation or variation: "all of these options are possible and acceptable". In angle brackets, it indicates variation in spelling. So, ⟨ưa⟩ and ⟨ươ⟩ are both ...
Draconis's user avatar
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5 votes
Accepted

What do half brackets mean in Akkadian transcriptions?

The full brackets mean that these signs have been restored by the editor; the tablet is broken and nothing is visible at this point. The half-brackets mean that the enclosed signs are partially ...
fdb's user avatar
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5 votes
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What is the significance of the super prefixes in Akkadian transcription?

These are so-called determinatives. They are not part of the word, but help to define the semantic scope of the following word. The raised “l” means that it is a male personal name. The sign which ...
fdb's user avatar
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4 votes
Accepted

How to write phonology rules using features?

The standard statement of that rule would be: [+syllabic,+hi,+round] → [–syllabic]/ [+syllabic,–round] [-syllabic]₁__ # There are other imaginable expressions that have the same effect, depending on ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83k
4 votes

How to write exceptions in sound change notation

The notion of "sound change notation" is a bit of a problem. It is a (not unreasonable) attempt to use a device of a different domain of linguistics, but you have identified a case where the concepts ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83k
2 votes
Accepted

SPE-style notation for combinatory sound changes

Wikipedia misstates what a phonological rules is: a rule is any (single) mapping of substring-class to substring-class, not just single segment to single segment. If you are interested in rule-based ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83k
2 votes

What is this 'OBL'?

Arguments that are neither subject nor object nor adjunct are obliques. For example, indirect objects and causees are obliques. They are usually indexed by θ roles.
Atamiri's user avatar
  • 2,590
2 votes

How to write these rules in features?

The best answer to this question is to explain why it can't be answered, as is. There is no single theory of features for rule-writing – I don't think anyone has done a thorough survey covering the ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83k
1 vote

Abbreviations for "gerund", "gerundive" and "supine"?

Looking up the parameter VerbForm in the Index Thomisticus treebank in Universal Dependencies I find Ger for Gerund, Gdv for Gerundive, but a tag for Supinum is missing.The PROIEL treebank has Sup for ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar

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