7

WALS is a great tool to answer questions like this. With this combined view of three features I find Zapotec and Sre as languages with the following features: Plural prefix / Noun-Adjective / Numeral-Noun


7

In Persian the indefinite article /i/ can be attached to a noun, or to a noun+adjective phrase. For example: pesar-i “a boy” pesar-e bozorg-i “a big boy”. Though of course in written Persian this article is written to the left of the head word. Just as a comment on the inadequacy of this "left / right" terminology.


6

One problem is determining that the item is an article, not a demonstrative (assuming that we use semantic tests and not conventional translations into English to decide that matter). There might be some question as to the obligatoriness of the article, if one believes that "if you have articles, everything is either marked with a definite article or an ...


6

The answer to your question definitely seems to be "yes". However, finding clear-cut examples has been difficult for me (though I would imagine that there are a number of them). It is of course often difficult to draw a line between independent words and bound clitics, or between articles and demonstratives. Among the well-known European languages, ...


5

The term for what a nominal refers to is referent.


3

Unfortunately, the idea that we can define nouns or noun phrases through meaning won't stand close scrutiny. Very often a noun phrase will have no referent at all. For example, in the phrase: It's strange that she didn't call back. Here the noun phrase it is a dummy subject, merely filling that syntactic position that would be occupied in canonical ...


3

I like that book. In the DP theory, the determinative "that" is head and the noun is the dependent. The demonstrative determinative "that" is just as much a determiner here as "the" is, so there is no structural difference between the book and that book; they are both NPs. There are a couple of facts to support the NP analysis. ...


3

First, a note: this isn't the only possible way to answer the question. You can also argue for it being an NP with special restrictions that mean it can only combine with the null determiner. There are also some theories which don't use DPs at all, just different flavors of NPs with different restrictions. But to me, that adds extra complexity and headaches ...


3

Lots of languages precede proper names with a definite article. The phenomenon is called the 'preproprial definite article'. You can find an article with a quick survey of languages and some theoretical conclusions here: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/253773804_Why_Rose_is_the_Rose_On_the_use_of_definite_articles_in_proper_names The main ...


3

You're perhaps looking for the term Part of Speech. It's a rather vague term, and in syntax theory you usually wanna specify the noun by stating its thematic role (agent, patient, experiencer, theme, etc.) and its syntactic function (subject, object, etc.). Theories like LFG (Bresnan, doi.org/10.1002/9781119105664) have "subject" as an atomic ...


2

The list of "things that are useful when describing noun phrases" cannot be complete, because there is no one list of what is relevant to every analysis. That being said, here are a few relevant things: What is obligatorily marked? This can include: plurality, case, definiteness Where does marking occur? As an affix to the head, on every word in the phrase? ...


1

I would like to expand on the answer provided by David Vogt and supported by BillJ in the comments. The word both is often the first part of a two-part conjunction, called correlative conjunction. Correlative conjunctions are, for instance, both...and, either...or, neither...nor, etc. Correlative conjunctions exist in many languages. Often both parts have ...


1

Note that both is not a determiner here. Barring conversion (such as the you I knew), you cannot be modified by a determiner. In your case, both is part of a correlative conjunction. Other examples include neither… nor, either… or, not only… but (also). The term comes from traditional grammar. Linguistically, the first part would probably not be analysed ...


1

While the analysis of phrases like "the meek" and "the happy" is debated, one common strategy is to view them as containing some syntactic element without an overt phonological representation that belongs to the category "noun". This is sometimes argued to be a case of ellipsis (e.g. "The rich, the poor, the obvious: ...


1

There's an oft-cited 1988 paper by Matthew Dryer dealing with adjective-noun order, most of which goes over my head, really, but the gist of it is that the purported tendency of VO (verb-object) languages to have adjectives that follow nouns, and conversely, that OV languages tend to be AdjN, appears not to hold at all if one excludes continental Eurasian ...


1

As usual, WALS is a great start, explaining the different modifiers: genitives, adjectives, and relative clauses. And there are number of articles on the order of modifiers: order of genitives order of adjectives order of demonstratives order of numerals order of relative clauses In general, the position of modifiers tends to go with the left- or right- ...


1

The answer to your question is not clear. What an article is and what separate is is arguable. (many of my references are from WALS) Historically, the definite article derives from demonstratives, explicit adjectives that mark proximity, and indefinites, a vague singular, derive from the numeral for one. There are many languages in Africa where ...


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