13

Very unlikely! While the phonetic similarities are real, the old Norse name of the weekday etymologically goes back to Frig's day, and not Freyja's day. The actual form of the Norse word is somewhat blurred by a possible early loan from Old Saxon (or some other such west Germanic language) into the attested Norse frjádagʀ. This form is very likely from ...


9

The number of North Germanic loans in the East Slavic languages is rather low (the most critical estimate is around thirty). For example, Panzer 2002 mentions 34 words (V. Kiparsky) or 30 words (Struminski 1996), such as кнут, селедка, шелк, ящик etc.; the other words are not very common in present-day Russian, e.g. варяг, витязь, стяг, ларь, пуд, ябеда etc....


9

The etymology of vendredi is completely straightforward. It is from “Veneris dies” (the day of Venus), well attested in Roman texts as the name for one of the seven days of the “planetary” week.


8

r and ʀ represent two different Elder Futhark runes, generally called *raido and *algiz respectively. The latter is used for a sound derived from Proto-Germanic *z, so many people (including me) prefer to write it as z; it's easier to type and harder to misread. But the weight of tradition is strong and many scholars continue to call it ʀ, so if you're ...


7

Bindrunes, or ligatures, are rather rare in ON. They are far more common in neo-pagan uses for runes, but that's nothing to do with Linguistics. So this answer will focus on attested, historical use of bindrunes. Consider for example Kragehul I. This is in the Elder Fuþark, not the Younger Fuþark, but the principle is exactly the same. Here the text begins ...


5

The loss of *h in all non-initial positions seems to be a distinctive North Germanic feature: (before a consonant) Icelandic nótt "night" vs. Old English niht / neaht (word-final) Icelandic sá "(I/he) saw" vs. OE seah (medial) Icelandic tíu "ten" vs. Gothic taihun This change has occurred in modern English, but it did not occur generally in the branch of ...


5

Yes, Old English /r/ was probably the same as the Old Norse /r/. As to its exact pronunciation, we can't really know but we're pretty sure it was something like a trilled [r] or tapped [ɾ]. We don't really know the exact sound in Old Norse either but we're almost certain it was a trilled [r] as that's the most common initial reflex of the sound in all ...


5

The suffix *-isk- is Indo-European. It has offspring in Greek, Germanic, Baltic and Slavic, and also in Romance, where it seems to be borrowed from Germanic.


4

The development of Proto-Germanic ai in the North Germanic languages is very complex. It depends on a number of factors (stressed/unstressed, followed by w, r/R, h etc.) - see e.g. Sandøy 2017 PGmc. ai > Proto-Norse æi (Fulk 2018: 70), which further developed into: ǣ (before w) (Heusler 1921: 28); ā (before r, h) (this ā further developed into ē in ...


3

You seem to have picked up on the easiest pattern for this: Weak masculine nouns end in -i, weak feminine nouns end in -a. Weak nouns are easier because there's only one main pattern for each gender. This is less universal for proper names, but in general, a weak masculine will end in -i, and a weak feminine or neuter in -a. Nouns ending in -ir are the same ...


2

"Runes" aren't a single writing system: there are several variants, used in different places at different times to transcribe different languages. It's like asking "how do I convert text written in the Latin alphabet to IPA?"—first, you have to know what language and orthography is being used. They're not interchangeable! Once you know what particular runic ...


2

Could these two words: stem from the same PIE root, and survived relatively unskathed have been borrowed one from the other, making one or both of the etymologies dubious have been borrowed from a non-IE language (perhaps in Shetland or other point of contact) into both Early Celtic and Old Norse Yes indeed! All three are plausible on the ...


2

Adding to the comprehensive answer above (I don't have enough reputation to comment), feminine names also often end in -un(n). Some examples taken from the sagas and Norse mythology are Guðrún, Þorunn, and Iðunn. Here is a list of names taken from early Icelandic written source: http://www.ellipsis.cx/~liana/names/norse/landnamabok.html. See the section &...


2

The addition of the letter s forms an iterative verb. There are more examples in Germanic languages, e.g. Low German hoppen "to hop", High German hopsen "to bounce, to lollop". The second step is called metathesis and this is again not an unusual process, for instance the English word wasp is derived from to weave (because of the nests that wasps build) ...


1

In Anglo-Saxon lēof 'beloved, dear' was used in a similar manner, though it was not as formal. e.g. "lēofa Bēowulf" 'dear Beowulf', "lēof ealdormann" 'Mister Alderman'. In Old Norse some sources have herra 'venerable' with a usage similar to "master, lord".


1

The modern Icelandic alphabet was introduced by Danish linguist Rasmus Rask – and perhaps a few colleagues – in the 19th century. He was trying to respect the 12th century text The First Grammatical Treatise about Old Norse as much as possible. In particular, "eth" was not used for a few centuries before Rask (which is why Rask's reform had a big impact on ...


1

Not exactly what you're asking, but an Old English text reporting the journey of two Scandinavians through Finnish and Baltic territory uses the phrase "Estland" for the region on the east coast of the Baltic Sea (http://www.oereader.ca/Wulfstanfram.html). Since the text was supposedly transcribed from Norse visitors, we might assume that "Estland" was an ...


1

I think that muðr from munnr exhibits an additional later change like that in maðr "man" from *mannr. Somehow geminated n before the z-derived r realized as ð. So it would PG *munþaz to proto-ON *munnr to later ON muðr.


1

The works of Jakob Jakobsen might be of interest to you. Not strictly Old Norse but the vast majority of the words in the following publications are of Old West Norse origins: An Etymological Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland [Two Volumes]. First printed in Copenhagen 1928. Reprinted in Lerwick 1985 The dialect and place names of Shetland. ...


1

You've got a new ON dictionary here: http://www.palaeolexicon.com/ It has mainly later dialect words, but you will find more archaic ones too. Looks like it has just been released, so I guess by time more words from the period 800-1100 AD will show up.


1

There is a reasonable list of grammars and dictionaries here: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Altnordische_Sprache. (The English version is less useful).


1

It was definitely an alveolar trill [r] (or flap [ɾ]) at the syllable onset, as in, in prevocalic positions. However, in non-prevocalic positions (in positions where a non-rhotic speaker would elide /r/ today), it was probably an alveolar approximant [ɹ], like in Modern English. We see this complementary distribution play out with /l/ as well - a clear [l] ...


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