I guess the NLTK documentation is a bit off. Looking at Wordnet's documents, I see:
Syntactic category: n for noun files, v for verb files, a for adjective files, r for adverb files.
And in another section of the same document:
One character code indicating the synset type:
I should think that there are a number of sources.
For example, the University of Sheffield offers videos for every IPA sound.
If the sounds of English, Spanish and German are enough for you, the University of Iowa has an animated app/web-app with videos.
Edit: I think reddit.com/r/ipa is also noteworthy, as most new apps and websites about the topic come ...
It is possible the OED version online is abridged. I think I read something of the sort on the website, but unfortunately I can't access it any more via your link (though I could at first, strange...). If it is indeed the unabridged version, I dare say it will be difficult for you to find more extensive commentaries.
The fact that you found a PIE root ...
You can look up PIE roots from Walde-Pokorny here. This contains a link to a language index, which could lead you to the Latin list, although you'd have to know that facio is related to putrefacio and a number of other words (odd that facio itself isn't an entry), which would point you to * dhe, and that would list everything-ish coming from that root.
Xhosa, Zulu, Swahili, Yoruba, Kele, and the vast majority of other Bantu (and Niger-Congo) languages are written in the Latin script. The ones in the south that have clicks tend to use the "spare" letters like C, X, and Q for them, rather than the vertical bars that the Khoi-San languages prefer. The Latin orthographies tend to be slightly defective (e.g. ...
The best reference source is the UCLA phonetics collection, here (you will notice a lot of other interesting sound categories).
I have strong reservations about using Wiki exemplars which are not produced by a person natively uttering words in languages with the sound in question. The bilabial ejective is, in my opinion, misleading in that the performer ...
I think you can also use the Indo-European section of the Tower of Babel database, which is also based on Pokorny, but only with caution, since they sometimes depart from the mainstream interpretations quite a bit. Anyway, this is what you get if you manage to type faciō in the Latin search field. You can also try Köbler's Indogermanisches Wörterbuch, which "...
I also faced the exact same problem. Unfortunately there doesn't seem to be that many online resources for this field, and the existing ones aren't really that good (e.g. the one by Leiden University, like many other MOOCs, is just way too superficial and brief).
My suggestion is just to find good textbooks and read them. When there wasn't any MOOC online, ...
Word frequency is only a proxy for word knowledge. For the English language, there are data available on word prevalence, i.e., on how many people know a certain word. You can find Measures of word prevalence for 61,800 English words by Marc Brysbaert, Paweł Mandera, Samantha McCormick, and Emmanuel Keuleers in the link given.
No. Native speakers have been in short supply for the past few millenia. What you can do is decide what phonetic (IPA) value you want to assign to e.g. "p" and listen to that via an authoritative online supplier (also in short supply), or as exemplified in a real language. In picking phonetic values for PIE, you can never determine exact values for /i u e/, ...
It seems that you're really more interested in reconstructions than more meaningful and evidence-based etymologies. Maybe, you would find this English-PIE translator useful: http://indo-european.info/dictionary-translator.
You can also find some info here: http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/ielex/.
But the key thing to remember is that those PIE *...
There is a list of vocabulary and the output from testing the snowball algorithm available at the Snowball Github page, though it is not precisely human tested but it's good for testing you stemmer.
It supports the following languages:
A great place to start is http://www.collocates.info which is based on COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English). It is incredibly comprehensive (not free but the prices range from $45-$250).
This site also answers the question as to how many collocates there are in English? 4.3 million. That is from the perspective of all possible collocate ...
FAIR have trained word embedding models for hundreds of languages, with the side effect that they have compiled words lists.
Wikipedia only, 300+ languages
fasttext.cc/docs/en/crawl-vectors.html / github.com/facebookresearch/fastText/blob/master/pretrained-vectors.md
Wikipedia + Common Crawl, 157 languages
I don't know about the current state of Kele, but the odds are good that this is how the language is currently written (it is a relatively recent translation). Likewise, Navajo. In general, these are representative of the actual spellings. As for your concern about (Zulu and) Xhosa, those sources are as accurate as any orthographic sources in the languages. ...
(This is mostly a step-by-step explanation of how to make use of the sources acattle pointed out.)
The web interface of the Corpus of Contemporary American English offers a collocate search function. Just follow the link and you should see the web interface. Now choose 'Compare' under 'Display', this should make a 'Collocate' box appear immediately under ...
As @hippietrail mentioned, Wiktionary does: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/βλέπω#Conjugation
So does the Triantafyllides Institute's dictionary, which is the only one of the three major contemporary dictionaries that's online: http://www.greek-language.gr/greekLang/modern_greek/tools/lexica/triantafyllides/search.html?lq=βλέπω&dq=
βλέπω [vlépo] -ομαι ...
It's not an online resource, but NLTK provides several ways to get measures of semantic similarity:
Several Wordnet-based options. Many of them are based on the path distance between synsets in the Wordnet graph. Many words obviously occur in more than one synset, so you need to choose at least a part of speech.
nltk.corpus.reader.lin which provides ...
I will suggest two fields that might be of interest, although I can't say for sure they will give you what you need.
Ontologies organise lexical items hierarchically.
Wikipedia has an article on (web) ontologies, and there is also a list of ontology tools. If you find a ready-made ontology for English and a way of querying the number of nodes one has to ...
This question hasn't been updated in a while. Google also released a 1 Billion Word Benchmark Corpus: https://github.com/tensorflow/models/tree/master/research/lm_1b. It has a vocabulary size of about 800k, as reported on the repo. The corpus was collected from English language newswire services from all over the world.
I've processed the unigram frequency ...
GPSG, the book (Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, by Gazdar, Klein, Pullum, and Sag) gives a context free psg theory of English which, from the standpoint of syntactic theory, is a great achievement, in my opinion. It covers all the main parts of English syntax that were analyzed in classical transformational grammar. It probably would never work as a ...
They call it "gramemes". They roughly can be described tags.
The full list of these is located here, and the description (pretty vague) is in column #4 "Описание" ("Description").
The "gramemes" in question are (sequential numbers from table above):
ADJS #4 "adjective/short"
Qual #59 qualitative
neut #27 neuter gender
sing #30 singular
If what you really want is Wiktionary's frequency list, you can get that by taking the various Wiktionary pages linked from the overview page and splicing them together.
However, be careful which corpus you're using. The idea of a "universal" corpus is generally a myth: comparing the frequencies of these words in TV scripts versus Project Gutenberg versus ...
Since you did not mention it in the question:
The World Atlas of Linguistic Structures (WALS) contains some of the data you are looking for.
Specifically, you can find information on the size of consonant and vowel inventories, consonant-vowel ratio, the presence or absence of some specific types of consonants, the presence or absence of front rounded ...
The arrangement of phonemes within syllables and words, which is what much of your question appears to be about, is known as 'phonotactics'. The World phonotactic database would therefore be likely to hold some of the answers you're seeking. This database holds phonotactic data for over 4000 languages, so it covers a good proportion (perhaps a majority) of ...