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7 votes
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How to detect verb in a sentence where the verb is invisible in the sentence?

This phenomenon is called zero copula. It especially common for third person present tense. I recommend that you read on how this is handled in syntax parsers for Russian or Hindi. It was also an ...
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7 votes
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What software is used to make these X-bar trees?

This is almost certainly done with LaTeX, or one of its friends, and the tikz-qtree package. It is an improvement of the qtree package with nicer node placement. If you are not familiar with LaTeX, ...
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5 votes

Earley Parser: Ambiguity

Earley parser is one example of chart parser, also called dynamic programming parser. There are many other kinds such as the CYK parser, the GLR and GLL parser, and more. The whole point of chart ...
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  • 1,497
5 votes

Why is dependency parsing so much faster than constituency parsing?

There are several factors at play: The implementation language: C/C++ is faster than Java is faster than Python The algorithm: Most of the constituent parsers, as well as MSTParser, use a dynamic ...
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4 votes
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What are the major sources of error for state-of-the-art parsers?

A nice study: Kummerfeld, Jonathan K., et al. "Parser showdown at the wall street corral: An empirical investigation of error types in parser output." Proceedings of the 2012 Joint Conference on ...
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4 votes
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Can training a Part-of-Speech tagger and parser at the same time improve parsing results?

I think you are talking about joint POS tagging and parsing. If you do not limit yourself to the neural network framework. The following paper can help: graph-based parser: Joint models for Chinese ...
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4 votes
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Dependency parsing that preserves structural ambiguities?

The top parsers like spaCy, Stanford and Google unfortunately only return one parse, although in many cases another parse is nearly equally probable. However, the always helpful Matt from spaCy ...
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4 votes
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What are uses of Dependency Parsing in NLP / Computational Linguistics?

Parsing is mostly an important building block used for improving the performance of downstream tasks, not as an application per se. So, for example, if we are training NER, it helps to hint to the ...
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3 votes
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Steps to build a dependency parser

I suppose you mean a rule-based parser since nobody would think of developing his own statistical parser (there are so many good open-source libraries). Building a parser is quite complicated. The ...
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  • 2,479
3 votes

How should grammatical errors be treated in parsing and tokenisation?

Science must be reproducible, and closely connected to experimental data. This has consequences on scientific practice, and in particular on the how experimental resources and copora should be dealt ...
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  • 1,497
3 votes
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Unable to understand meaning of tag NONE *-1 in Penn Treebank example

After going through a number of examples, I think I got meaning of *NONE* in parse tree output. Let's take an example, suppose we have to parse following sentence: Ricky is a boy and likes fruits. ...
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3 votes

Please help me parse the subject complement of

Since the one has an article, it seems fair to treat it like a (pro)noun, so it functions as a noun subject complement. For whom you are looking is as a whole a relative clause modifying the one, so ...
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3 votes
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Convert a non projective dependency tree to a projective one

I've just seen your question, I don't know whether it's still relevant, but here you have a paper that describes how to projectivise a dependency tree. http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/P05-1013
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  • 46
3 votes

Split a sentence using nltk and python

If you are familiar with spacy, you can use the dependency of the words in the sentence: import spacy nlp = spacy.load("en_core_web_sm") doc = nlp("Apple is looking at buying U.K. ...
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3 votes

German Dependency Parsing - question about dependencies between "sich ____ lassen"

Thanks for your question. This example reflects a larger problem in grammaticizing language. Roughly speaking there are two approaches: Generative and descriptive. A parser is generative, presupposing ...
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  • 205
3 votes

How far ahead we look when parsing and understanding text

These are more or less like the word-sense disambiguation, anaphora resolution or co-reference resolution examples in the Winograd Schema Challenge and generally in natural language understanding. ...
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3 votes
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Parse Tree Formatter Tools?

Here is a script I quickly assembled from pieces of code I had lying around: https://trinket.io/python3/a33a025467?toggleCode=true&showInstructions=true Beware that this script parses your tree ...
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  • 6,120
2 votes

Is there a measure of how easy a sentence is to parse as a Natural Language problem?

Yes, there are measures. Whether they are consistent or useful is subjective. A probabilistic parser like https://demos.explosion.ai/displacy or https://cloud.google.com/natural-language/ returns ...
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2 votes

Relative clauses in X-Bar

I've given what i deem to be a reasonably standard phrase-structure tree for a that-relative clause, consistent with the principles of X-bar theory below (taking Jackendoff, 1977 as a concrete ...
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  • 1,667
2 votes

Which dependency parsers take auxiliaries to to be heads over content verbs and prepositions to be heads over their complements?

I'm actually a grad student on the team at Stanford that's been developing Stanford Dependencies (on which Universal Dependencies is based), so I think I can clarify things for you. You're assuming ...
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2 votes

Parsing sentences

There are multiple competing procedures. Linguistics is still quite far from proving true even fractions of the grammar of any specific natural language. Even the most basic phenomena are interpreted ...
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  • 168
2 votes

Theory behind the semantics of predicates

If you are going for a computational approach to predicates, I think you may wish to consider consulting VerbNet. It deals a lot with knowing just what arguments a (verb) predicate can take and also ...
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2 votes

What are the most authoratative references on the notion of shallow parsing?

Maybe this link will be useful for you: NP Chunking (State of the art).
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  • 121
2 votes

Can training a Part-of-Speech tagger and parser at the same time improve parsing results?

Yes, we can train a joint model for POS tagging and dependency parsing. See the paper (and its source code): "A Novel Neural Network Model for Joint POS Tagging and Graph-based Dependency Parsing" ...
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  • 121
2 votes

Which one is head noun?

I don't know -- I think it is arguable. It sounds rather peculiar with a plural-agreeing verb: ??One of the lizards are ready to eat. but that might be because the subject, "one of the lizards" ...
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  • 12.3k
2 votes

Semantic parsing vs Propositional Representation

Most computational parsing methods yield an output that is a propositional representation within the computer. This includes pure syntactic parsers (if one assumes we can have pure syntax) and ...
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  • 251
2 votes

Is it possible to produce a list of syntactic rules for a language?

The answer is yes you can, especially if what you want is a subset of French sentences. You will need more rules for a greater subset. The decision as to when that subset is large enough, is with you. ...
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  • 4,348
1 vote

Can training a Part-of-Speech tagger and parser at the same time improve parsing results?

(Assumption: by "at the same time" I assume you mean "in one operation". If this is not what you mean, this may not apply.) Since parsers rely on the POS tags, and normally occur later in the NLP ...
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  • 121
1 vote

How to derive training data for maltparser classifier from conll file

You will need an oracle finding algorithm. Basically, given the gold standard dependency tree, the oracle finding algorithm tells you what is the next optimal action on a certain state. From the ...
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  • 101
1 vote

How to derive training data for maltparser classifier from conll file

You can use a converter, such as the ClearNLP C2DConvert for this, which takes PTB trees (constituency parses) and converts to dependency parses in CLEAR style, or ConLL (TSV), format, which Malt and ...
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