9 votes

Are there any languages with only one of "yes" or "no"?

Finnish has particle words for "yes": "Kyllä" (formal) and "joo", "juu", "jep" (very colloquial), but no such words for "no". However, one ...
  • 3,024
6 votes
Accepted

Etymology of Ancient Greek interrogative particle ἆρα

ἆρα is considered to be cognate with the interrogative particle in Baltic languages (Latvian ar, Lithuanian aȓ). Persian āyā does not have a known ancestor in Old or Middle Persian. In early New ...
  • 22.8k
6 votes
Accepted

Symbol or abbreviation for a particle?

In interlinear glosses, I think PTC or PTCL are most commonly used to abbreviate "particle". PRT or PART are sometimes used too, but should rather be avoided due to confusion with "preterite" and "...
  • 6,075
5 votes
Accepted

Infinitive Marker

It turns out, "parts of speech" are one of those formalisms that's taught in all the schools, but isn't always useful when you start looking closer. Fundamentally, "part of speech" is a word's role ...
  • 54.2k
5 votes

Understanding the purpose of determiners/articles/demonstratives in language

Well, I explained the why it's useful in your other question so if you're asking about the process as curiousdannii said, that is you are asking about the grammaticalisation cycle, I could explain a ...
  • 4,348
4 votes

Difference between particle and adverb in English

Things are called particles when they undergo the rule Particle Shift. "Particle" is an ad hoc POS made up to fill the need for a notation to use to describe when the rule works. It is not a happy ...
  • 12.2k
4 votes
Accepted

What does 'MSP' stand for in the context of Chinese parts of speech?

I emailed Fei Xia and she said that MSP simply means miscallenous particles. I don't think it actually means anything more special, like "modal structural particle," or otherwise. Page 17 of the ...
  • 314
3 votes

What Non-Austronesian languages have a linker or ligature?

There are similar particles in Mandarin Chinese (de). Persian ezafe is also a similar process.
  • 2,334
3 votes

Origin of Japanese particles だい(dai), かい(kai)

According to Daijisen and Daijirin, the particle い i derives from particle や ya or よ yo. Apparently it was introduced in Early Modern Japanese.
  • 4,752
3 votes
Accepted

How common are the “politeness particles” in Thai?

I was there in the rural areas and they used the particles among each other as well. A lot of standard phrases wouldn't even sound right without it - like Kop Kun Kaa/Kap. Also, it is used ...
3 votes
Accepted

If there are cases of tense or plural as separate words like particles

English future tense is a separate word, as in "he will be here". English only distinguishes past/non-past with morphology; all other TAM distinctions use auxiliaries. Latin also lacks certain tenses ...
  • 54.2k
3 votes

What is the part of speech of 'modifiers to adjectives'?

In standard average European languages and also in classical Latin and Greek, there is no new part of speech for a modifier of an adjective or adverb, it is just an adverb. I don't know whether there ...
3 votes

Difference between particle and adverb in English

The following illustrates my second answer to this question, which is that "particles" have no part of speech. Earlier descriptions of subcategorization In that first generation of great young ...
  • 12.2k
2 votes

Difference between particle and adverb in English

There’s no difference, as you put it, since particles are mainly prepositions. "Particle" is not a distinct word category (part of speech) as such, but a term used for certain words that have the ...
  • 808
2 votes

What is the relationship between perfectivity and the Classical Japanese conjunctive particle "-て" ("-te")?

While Shirane follows the traditional grammarian's account (in this as in everything else), according to linguist Bjarke Frellesvig's A History of the Japanese Language, the non-perfective, connective ...
2 votes

Do the Thai masculine & feminine "polite particles" have counterparts in Lao?

Another word widely heard in Laos when they want to make a sentence more polite, I hear "ໂດຍ" or "ໂດຍຂ້ານ້ອຍ". After asking some friends who speak Lao as a mothertongue, they always use "ໂດย", the ...
2 votes

Are the Japanese and Korean subject particles known to be related in any way, including by Sprachbund?

As a Japanese-American I've put a lot of thought and reading into this. The short answer is, as others have written, it is not proven either way -- however the evidence is mounting recently in favor ...
2 votes

Etymology of Ancient Greek interrogative particle ἆρα

PIE *h2(e)r or *ar- 'thus, so' is the PIE root. Don't think though the Persian word derives from it. Phrygian has ἔρα which is a cognate to the Greek ἆρα.
  • 2,534
2 votes

What Non-Austronesian languages have a linker or ligature?

Japanese has a class of adjectives often called in English "-na adjectives". When used attributively, these take the particle na between the adjective and the following modified noun. 静かな人 shizuka ...
2 votes

What Non-Austronesian languages have a linker or ligature?

The Bantu language Kinande has a somewhat peculiar condition that two object NPs in the VP must be separated by what is traditionally called an "associative" morpheme, which was terms a "linker" by ...
  • 70.4k
2 votes

What parts of speech and sentence constituents are "yes" and "no" words in answers?

The fact that the English word yes was a contracted verb form some centuries ago does not affect its status in present day English: Part of Speech classification is essentially synchronic and all ...
1 vote

How do languages other than English deal with compound, hyphenated adjectives?

The short answer is that most languages don't treat these all as adjectives. Note that many of these are actually nouns used as modifiers in English. For these, Bantu and Japanese would generally use ...
  • 54.2k
1 vote

What Non-Austronesian languages have a linker or ligature?

Also Albanian i, e, të, së; Example: enciklopedi e lirë "free encyclopaedia".
  • 6,524
1 vote

If there are cases of tense or plural as separate words like particles

Cebuano tawo n man pl mga tawo (mga + tawo ) or katawhan (ka- + tawo + -han)
  • 11
1 vote

Are there any languages with only one of "yes" or "no"?

Mandarin has an unambiguous simplex 不 bù which means ‘no’ on its own, but no equivalent simplex that means ‘yes’. 不 does double duty as the negating particle for non-past verbs, so it’s not only used ...
1 vote

Etymology of Ancient Greek interrogative particle ἆρα

Warning: I am not a linguist! This post is essentially a long comment on French’s use of est-ce que and your exclusion of it because “it’s a whole phrase”. I think est-ce que in modern French is not ...

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