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10 votes

Is there any modern Indo-European languages with synthetic passive form

The North Germanic languages do! These examples are from Norwegian, but basically the same thing happens in both Danish and Swedish, and apparently also in Faroese and Icelandic. In Norwegian, the ...
Omar and Lorraine's user avatar
9 votes
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Is there any modern Indo-European languages with synthetic passive form

I'll try to give as complete a list as I can, going (surviving) branch by (surviving) branch. Albanian Standard Albanian has a medio-passive voice sometimes described as a passive. It continues the ...
Tristan's user avatar
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7 votes

Is there any modern Indo-European languages with synthetic passive form

In Ukrainian and Russian, you can form the passive voice form of practically any transitive verb by adding the reflexive particle -ся to the active voice form of the verb. Historically, this particle ...
Yellow Sky's user avatar
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6 votes
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Why is the passive voice more prevalent in English than in other Indo-European languages?

I am not sure whether your initial assumption is statistically correct, but let us take it as a working hypothesis. French and German (to mention only these) very commonly use "on" and "man" with an ...
fdb's user avatar
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5 votes

Why isn't this sentence in a passive form?

There's a common feature in English known as the "ergative construction", "middle construction", or "labile construction", though it's not quite the same as an actual ergative case (as found in Basque)...
Draconis's user avatar
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5 votes

Why is the passive voice more prevalent in English than in other Indo-European languages?

It is a matter of linguistic pragmatics. A typical statement has a topic, also known as theme or given (what is being talked about) and a comment or rheme (the new information about the topic). In ...
Ned's user avatar
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4 votes

Passive: illusion or fact?

I think he is using 'passive' to mean 'the passive transformation', probably because this was the most common meaning of 'passive' at the time. He's arguing that we can generate and interpret passive ...
WavesWashSands's user avatar
4 votes
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What is the subject of a passive sentence?

The former object becomes the new subject. That is clear -- the new subject has all the properties one could reasonably associate with a subject. Number agreement with the verb and subject raising ...
Greg Lee's user avatar
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4 votes
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Suppletion of Spanish "matar" (to kill) by "morir" (to die) in the passive

The paper Fue muerto: Suppletion in Spanish Analytic Passives (p.96-112) analyses this very question. The authors come to the conclusion that it is indeed suppletion: We claim that there are three ...
iacobo's user avatar
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4 votes
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Why is there not passive imperative?

This is a fairly common gap for languages to have, though it's not universal. (Ancient Greek, for example, has regular imperatives in the active, middle, and passive voices.) So it's not surprising ...
Draconis's user avatar
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4 votes
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How do we parse the sentence, "I have never seen a fish get cooked like that"?

In this sentence, "get," just like "be" in other passive sentences, is the passivizer. That is, the active form of "I have never seen a fish get cooked like that" is (just like the active form of "I ...
matan-matika's user avatar
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4 votes

Is the active vs passive voice distinction, a property of the verb or sentence itself?

Of the classical linguistic categories, English does not have paradigmatic representations of Voice, Mood, or Aspect for verbs, nor Case or Gender for nouns. It has two paradigmatic tenses, present ...
jlawler's user avatar
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4 votes

Can someone share with me an article that studies the decline of by-phrases in the passive?

This thesis studies the history of passives and as part of the study looks at the instance of by-phrases, in the journal American journal of botany, grouping articles into three historical clusters – ...
user6726's user avatar
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3 votes

Can ergative languages have a passive construction?

In general, it is possible for ergative languages to have passive constructions. WALS allows you to search for combinations of properties, so if you do this: https://wals.info/combinations/107A_98A?...
Alazon's user avatar
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3 votes
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Are there languages with free argument order that lack a passive voice? If not, why not?

I'm not sure I fully understand what you are asking but I can offer some examples of argument structure which may provide some context to it. Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), which is often analyzed as an “...
earlyinthemorning's user avatar
3 votes

criteria to distinguish resultative from stative participles?

After Embick (2004), you could take a look at this paper by Alexiadou & Anagnostopoulou, whose title is "Structuring participles", downloadable at www.lingref.com/cpp/wccfl/26/paper1653.pdf After ...
Mitomino's user avatar
3 votes
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Is there a language which uses 'passive voice' more often than 'active' one?

You clarified in a comment on another answer: What I meant by more occurencs is the degree of tolerance in the usage. English, French, German allow freely verbs to passivize (with very few ...
Draconis's user avatar
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2 votes

In German, doesn't using 'von' for agents of passive sentences result in ambiguity?

Like with any overloaded preposition it is possible to construct examples which are ambiguous, especially out of context. And it is trivially easy to construct examples which are grammatically ...
Adam Bittlingmayer's user avatar
2 votes

What methods do languages use to re-introduce the subject of a passive construction?

In French, par ('by') and de ('from/of') can be used depending on the verb. In Late Archaic Chinese, the more common passive construction that includes the agent was jian + main verb + yu + agent. The ...
WavesWashSands's user avatar
2 votes

Why is the need+concealed passive gerund construction unavailable with polyadic gerunds?

This is not a great explanation, and it's conjectural, but here goes. We know that in the evolution of grammatical systems, new constructions are introduced only gradually, beginning with simpler ...
Greg Lee's user avatar
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2 votes

Why is the passive voice more prevalent in English than in other Indo-European languages?

Frequent use of the passive in English is not a breach of any "recommended" proportion. Rather, it is a function of register, i.e. it depends on the formality of the situation and the ...
yutu's user avatar
  • 196
2 votes

Why isn't this sentence in a passive form?

The word "sells" here in the English language of today has a different meaning from "is sold", and Draconis' answer does not apply here (even if it may have historically ...
user21820's user avatar
  • 183
2 votes

Passive Constructions

A ditransitive verb is a verb with two objects, which are a Theme and a Goal. For example, in Alex gave Andy the book, Andy is the Goal and the book is the Theme. In English, such verbs have two ...
Keelan's user avatar
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2 votes

Can ergative languages have a passive construction?

In Middle Persian you say things like man kard “of-me made” for “I made”, where kard is historically the perfect passive participle of the verb “to make”, as it is in Old Persian manā kŗtam “my (...
fdb's user avatar
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1 vote

Is there any modern Indo-European languages with synthetic passive form

Punjabi and Sindhi both have synthetic passive conjugations for verbs, formed by infixing and shift of stress from the stem to the infix. An example from Punjabi: ਖਾਵਣ کھاوݨ (ˈkhā.vaṇ) gerund, “to eat”...
earlyinthemorning's user avatar
1 vote

Are there any studies on some English passive verb constructions currently being replaced by new intransitive senses?

Are there studies where this is being discussed? Would these new senses be ergative? This is not a complete answer, but I hope it can help someone to take a few steps farther as well. As to merely if ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
1 vote

Difference between PRO and OP

I'll try to answer your question although I'm blind to Chinese clause structure. But notice that you wrote PRO in your question. PRO is quite different from pro. Let's consider this sentence: (1) ...
Tsutsu's user avatar
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1 vote

Derivation of Passive according to Principles and Parameters (Jaeggli)

Consider this pair: (1) John ate an apple. (2) An apple was eaten (by John). In (1), the voice is active. Active voices in English have the argument structure of {Agent, V+Theme/patient etc.}. So, ...
Tsutsu's user avatar
  • 1,068
1 vote

Derivation of Passive according to Principles and Parameters (Jaeggli)

Are you familiar with case theory and theta theory from GB? Basically the idea is that theta roles and case are always assigned in particular configurations. For instance, the complement of a verb ...
one-off-post's user avatar
1 vote

Origin of -s verbs in Norwegian and Swedish

Well, my guess is that it comes from the -sk ending in Old Norse (modern Icelandic -st ending). As found in the famous Vǫlospá verses: Brœðr munu BERJASK (Modern Icelandic: Bræður munu BERJAST), ...
Ergative Man's user avatar
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