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17

It's not a sound, but a contour tone letter applying to the whole word (or syllable). This case specifically is a high falling tone, like the fourth tone in Mandarin. The Pumi example from the same table has another example: [pʙ̩˥], a word with a high register tone.


12

There seem to be several common confusions in your question: Phonetic vs. phonemic Phoneme is a collection of sounds that serve the same function. For example, English phoneme /p/ sounds like [p] in 'spit' but like [ph] (h represents aspiration) in 'pit'. Speakers don't recognize them as two different sounds, though, because they have function e.g. to ...


7

The differences between [b] and [v] are fairly trivial between from a historical and phonetic perspective. The count of shared categories in the IPA chart isn't a good way of judging similarity (and the IPA doesn't claim to embody all relevant concepts of "category"). They are voiced oral labials: you can add "-dental" or "bi-" ...


7

I should think that there are a number of sources. For example, the University of Sheffield offers videos for every IPA sound. If the sounds of English, Spanish and German are enough for you, the University of Iowa has an animated app/web-app with videos. Edit: I think reddit.com/r/ipa is also noteworthy, as most new apps and websites about the topic come ...


6

Another hurdle to a 1-to-1 correspondence between phonemes and graphemes in a language has to do with language change and the fact that written language is more resistant to change than spoken language (and writing systems are even more reluctant to change), in general. In fact, you'll often find that languages that come the closest to having such a system ...


5

The 'phonemic touch' of SAMPA is not really a feature of SAMPA but of it's developmental relationship to IPA. There are two key things to know about IPA: As Colin Fine says, it is always only used approximately. To encode every last fronting of a vowel, devoicing of a consonant, etc. would be prohibitively time consuming. So a phonetician will only ...


5

Forget about phoneme, until you get "phone" versus "sound". A "phone" is a specific kind of sound: it is an interpretation of sound as part of a linguistic system. Wind and bird noises are just sounds. There are many sounds that cannot possibly be produced by human anatony. There are also many sounds produced by the human vocal ...


4

There is an even richer transcriptional tradition used in Finno-Ugric studies which allows up to 8 length distinctions. You can either get trained in transcribing durational distinctions auditorily, or you can use Praat to determine durations from recordings, assuming you have a theory of landmarks (e.g. what do do with aspiration, how to make decisions ...


3

Seeing Speech is a remarkable site that has MRI, UTI and animations for most IPA sounds.


3

York University (Ontario, Canada) has a site where you can hear all the IPA sounds: http://www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/


3

I don't think it would be exactly possible to pin down a certain inventory of vowels in your own idiolect because even then they can vary so much depending on the environment that they appear in. Take, for example, the vowel contrast of /u/ and /ʊ/. I can pronounce those just fine, and I can easily note the difference in the vowel between "book" /bʊk/ and "...


3

Pulmonic-ingressive voiceless bidenti-alveolar lateral fricative would be my guess. I notice that I produce this sound with my jaw shut and my teeth clamped together, so the frication is at least partially bidental (hence the nonce designation "bidenti-alveolar," modeled after the accepted "denti-alveolar"). We can narrowly transcribe this phone as [h̪͆͡ɬ↓]....


2

A recent post on LanguageLog discusses this very question in the particular case of Korean. For centuries, Korean has been written in a mixture of Chinese characters and Hangul. In most contexts today, only Hangul is used; but here is a case where it has been written entirely in Chinese characters, apparently because of the formality of the occasion.


2

The bottom-line positive answer is "there's nothing to worry about". More specifically, though, a bit of background on digital technology will clarify how the question is somewhat misconceived. Assume that you have a sampled speech file containing 1024 bytes, where (counting from zero) bytes 5 and 987 are 255. The question is, what is the duration in time ...


2

In some Arab countries (e.g. Egypt) final ى is written without any dots, regardless of whether it is pronounced /ī/ or /ā/. This is also the spelling convention for Persian and Urdu. But in some Arab countries (e.g. Syria and Lebanon) it is usual to write ي if it is pronounced /ī/ and ى if it is pronounced /ā/. Usage is not standardised.


1

The standard system of transcription used widely by phoneticians and phonologists (IPA) is useful and convenient but not perfect. And it is certainly not universal. How could it be either? The speech signal is continuous, but IPA is an attempt at breaking down that continuous signal into discrete acoustic "events". And speech is gradient along most of the ...


1

The lengths of phones cannot be measured in absolute terms. It is always the relative lengths of phonemes that is decisive. One possibility is comparing the lengths of different vowels in the same phonetic context. Another possibility is comparing the lengths of adjacent sequences of vowels and consonants.


1

Analysing speech data to time intervalls smaller than a few milliseconds is not very sensible: The fundamental frequency f0 of the adult human voice ranges from 100-300 Hz. This means, that one full vibration already takes 3–10 ms, to perceive it as such you need several full vibrations. The higher frequency components in speech sounds are typically about ...


1

Your alphabet is completely phonetic? Are you sure? The Sound Pattern of English feature system has around 17 orthogonal features which, even if they are all binary valued, gives 2^17 distinct sound segments. That takes a pretty big alphabet. (Though not all sounds occur in all languages.) I don't know why you think that a phonetic alphabet doesn't need ...


1

The fact of there being "prenasalized" as well as voiced consonants with this property does not make it at all unlikely that the segments are breathy voiced. You would need to read the phonetic work on this language to know why the distinction is said to be one of breathy voicing -- the Wiki page points you to Watkins, Justin William. 2002. The phonetics of ...


1

Serbian is my mother tongue and that's exactly the way the language works. There's a rule which says: Write the way you speak, and read as it is writen, i.e. every single sound has its own character. It makes learning the writing system so easy, only you have to learn cyrillic. I suppose there are other languages with the same system, just have never ...


1

If you're doing it by touching your teeth, you're more likely pronouncing (if I'm reading correctly) either /tθ/ (voiceless dental affricate) or /t̪ɕ/ (voiceless denti-alveopalatal affricate). A voiceless postalveolar affricate would rather be /tʃ/. I'm not actually sure of the exact sound you're making as I can't hear you, but this is my best guess.


1

Part of what makes your question a bit tricky to answer is that hidden beneath it is a much more general question--"How do I do phonetics?"--which is obviously an absurdly broad question. The issue is narrowed by the fact that you are focusing on a concrete problem, but addressing it still entails a lot of knowledge about how speech and language work. That ...


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