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22 votes

Should orthographies represent phonemes or phones?

Consult the speech community. The orthography must fit the needs of the speech community, they are the primary users of it. When the speech community wants a phonetic representation (helping ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
15 votes
Accepted

What is "˥˩" in the IPA?

It's not a sound, but a contour tone letter applying to the whole word (or syllable). This case specifically is a high falling tone, like the fourth tone in Mandarin. The Pumi example from the same ...
phipsgabler's user avatar
7 votes

Evolution of [v] to [b] and vice versa

The differences between [b] and [v] are fairly trivial between from a historical and phonetic perspective. The count of shared categories in the IPA chart isn't a good way of judging similarity (and ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
6 votes

Should orthographies represent phonemes or phones?

It does not per se matter whether you write using narrow vs broad transcriptions. The following desiderata should guide your choices. Number 1 is, do speakers like your choice over the alternative. ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
5 votes
Accepted

What is the difference between phone (speech sound) and a sound?

Forget about phoneme, until you get "phone" versus "sound". A "phone" is a specific kind of sound: it is an interpretation of sound as part of a linguistic system. Wind ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
4 votes

How do they separate phones' length?

There is an even richer transcriptional tradition used in Finno-Ugric studies which allows up to 8 length distinctions. You can either get trained in transcribing durational distinctions auditorily, ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
4 votes

For each IPA phone, are there animations or videos that depict the vocal tract during articulation?

Seeing Speech is a remarkable site that has MRI, UTI and animations for most IPA sounds.
Phil Mitchell's user avatar
4 votes

Should orthographies represent phonemes or phones?

The answer of user6726 raises some very good points, but really the correct answer is that you should get in touch with someone (ideally more than one person) who has faced this problem before, ...
Pilcrow's user avatar
  • 156
4 votes

Is there an IPA character for the sympathetic sucking in sound?

Pulmonic-ingressive voiceless bidenti-alveolar lateral fricative would be my guess. I notice that I produce this sound with my jaw shut and my teeth clamped together, so the frication is at least ...
Weekend Lojbanist's user avatar
3 votes

Should orthographies represent phonemes or phones?

I'm a conlanger, rather than a professional linguist, but I use a unique letter for each phoneme, but whenever that sound occurs, even as an allophone, it is written that way. In other words, if /m/ ...
nearsighted's user avatar
2 votes

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Serbian is my mother tongue and that's exactly the way the language works. There's a rule which says: Write the way you speak, and read as it is writen, i.e. every single sound has its own character. ...
Nikola's user avatar
  • 29
2 votes
Accepted

Why is the Arabic alif maksura sometimes read as a ya

In some Arab countries (e.g. Egypt) final ى is written without any dots, regardless of whether it is pronounced /ī/ or /ā/. This is also the spelling convention for Persian and Urdu. But in some Arab ...
fdb's user avatar
  • 24.2k
2 votes

Precise timing measurement in Praat / .wav files

The bottom-line positive answer is "there's nothing to worry about". More specifically, though, a bit of background on digital technology will clarify how the question is somewhat misconceived. ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
2 votes

Why are voiced ejectives impossible?

Voicing requires higher subglottal pressure than supraglottal pressure. When the larynx lowers, the supraglottal cavity increases in size and the subglottal cavity decreases, which means that ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
2 votes
Accepted

Morphophonemic rules in phonology

The answer is that these are just variant pronunciations (and spellings). The overwhelmingly standard term is morphophonemic. The haplological alternative arose in the late 60's and 70's but subsided ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
1 vote

Should orthographies represent phonemes or phones?

I'm not convinced that an accurate phonetic transcription would help L2 learners (let alone L1 ones). Co-articulation is both universal and not really consciously perceived (see also above comment by ...
Pedrok's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote

Should orthographies represent phonemes or phones?

Also, in addition the phonetics, I suggest the principle to keep the orthography consistent with the grammar. As instance, in German (the language reform of 1998 simplified the grammar), Schifffahrt ...
blue_lama's user avatar
1 vote

Why are the coronal approximants so different from the others?

First, I doubt that you think that [l] and [ɬ] sound totally different, so the question is whether any such effect is about being coronal, or is it about being being rhotic. I would focus on the ...
user6726's user avatar
  • 83.1k
1 vote

Precise timing measurement in Praat / .wav files

Analysing speech data to time intervalls smaller than a few milliseconds is not very sensible: The fundamental frequency f0 of the adult human voice ranges from 100-300 Hz. This means, that one full ...
Sir Cornflakes's user avatar
1 vote

How do they separate phones' length?

The standard system of transcription used widely by phoneticians and phonologists (IPA) is useful and convenient but not perfect. And it is certainly not universal. How could it be either? The speech ...
musicallinguist's user avatar
1 vote

How do they separate phones' length?

The lengths of phones cannot be measured in absolute terms. It is always the relative lengths of phonemes that is decisive. One possibility is comparing the lengths of different vowels in the same ...
mach's user avatar
  • 220

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