25 votes
Accepted

Is there a reason that /w/ isn't represented on the IPA chart?

Your basic premise is incorrect here: /w/ is listed in the Consonant section of the IPA page on Wikipedia, under Co-articulated consonants where it belongs. It doesn’t belong in the main table, ...
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25 votes
Accepted

/t͡ʃ/ vs. /ʧ/ vs. /tʃ/

"tʃ", "t͡ʃ", and "t͜ʃ" are the only representations of the affricate currently sanctioned by the International Phonetic Association. The ligature symbols "ʧ", &...
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  • 4,652
21 votes

What is the meaning of the number 2 in Proto-Indo European reconstructions? e.g. As in *tewtéh₂, meaning "people" or "tribe"

The numbers are specific to Proto-Indo-European. Scholars aren't sure how PIE was pronounced: after all, there are no native speakers around now, or records from the time. All of the sounds in ...
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  • 51k
19 votes

/t͡ʃ/ vs. /ʧ/ vs. /tʃ/

In theory, the difference between /t͡ʃ/ with a tiebar and /tʃ/ without is that the former represents a single unit and the latter represents two units. This is sometimes important for theoretical ...
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  • 51k
14 votes
Accepted

Is IPA machine-readable?

IPA is machine readable now, because the IPA characters are all in Unicode, the standard character set of today. At the time when SAMPA was created, character sets were either 7 bit (ASCII) or 8 bit (...
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13 votes
Accepted

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

There seem to be several common confusions in your question: Phonetic vs. phonemic Phoneme is a collection of sounds that serve the same function. For example, English phoneme /p/ sounds like [p] ...
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10 votes

Is it possible to have the same symbol for different sounds in IPA?

Yes, this is not only possible but regular practice. In general, one only notates the kind of features of a sound that are relevant for the transcription and it is left to reader to add the omitted ...
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8 votes
Accepted

Phonology vs phonetics : /ʁɔz/ vs [ʁoz]

Although /ɔ/ and /o/ do contrast in certain positions in French, the distinction is neutralized before /z/, where phonetically it's always the high-mid vowel that appears: [oz] but never [ɔz]. So it's ...
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  • 10.5k
7 votes

Why don't any languages have strictly one character for every single phonetic sound?

Another hurdle to a 1-to-1 correspondence between phonemes and graphemes in a language has to do with language change and the fact that written language is more resistant to change than spoken ...
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  • 126
7 votes

Does "You" or "Unicorn" begin with a vowel sound

"You" begins with a consonant, in all senses of the word "consonant". There is a difference between "vowel" as used in English orthographic pedagogy and "vowel" as used in linguistics. The name of ...
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  • 66.6k
7 votes

Cyrillic phonetic alphabet?

Nowadays, most major publications use IPA, and among those that don't, it's usually for historical reasons. Creating new phonetic alphabets isn't a particularly active area of research when there are ...
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  • 51k
6 votes
Accepted

Discussions around symbols included/excluded in the IPA

Oh yes, very much so! The IPA is constantly changing and expanding, and existing symbols are moved, repurposed, and deleted. Many linguists still use the "Americanist" system, for instance, which ...
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  • 51k
6 votes
Accepted

Choice of phonemic symbol for /b/, /d/, /g/, /ʝ/ in Spanish

/ʝ/ vs. /ɟ/ Phonetically, there is a lot of variability in the realization of the Spanish sound that Wikipedia transcribes as /ʝ/, both between dialects, and in some cases between different utterances ...
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  • 16.5k
6 votes
Accepted

Cyrillic phonetic alphabet?

There are a few authors that use the Russian Linguistic Alphabet (Русский лингвистический алфавит) or a variation of it. For example Balgina 2002 (see sections 56, 57, 58).
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  • 76
6 votes

Use of asterisk in middle of word of an attempted proto-language; does it refer to everything that follows?

I am assuming that you got the "t*amano" from https://gawron.sdsu.edu/fundamentals/course_core/lectures/historical/historical.htm I think "t*amano" is a typo for "*tamano," with the asterisk in front ...
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  • 2,324
6 votes

Is it possible to have the same symbol for different sounds in IPA?

As jk mentioned, it's common to only transcribe the features that are relevant (a "broad" transcription). But there are a few other reasons why the mapping from symbol to sound might not be ...
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  • 51k
6 votes
Accepted

What kind of stress is this?

It means it is pronounced either /ˈaɪsˌfri/ or /ˌaɪsˈfri/. This notation of "¦" standing for "primary or secondary stress" was devised in Webster's Third (1961) by its ...
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  • 4,652
5 votes

Is there a reason that /w/ isn't represented on the IPA chart?

The layout of an IPA chart is partly arbitrary, by which I mean that there are patterns to it, but those patterns aren't necessary the only patterns that would have been reasonable. They just are what ...
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  • 16.5k
4 votes
Accepted

How is an archiphoneme represented on the phonetic level?

An archiphoneme is employed when a surface phone (which has a definite phonetic value) could derive from a number of underlying sounds /x,y,z/ and there is no contrast between these segments in that ...
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  • 66.6k
4 votes
Accepted

What is X in a syllable C=consonant, V=vowel

As you know already C means consonants V means vowels And X means any phoneme s means /s/ sh means /ʃ/ () means the phoneme in brackets is optional
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  • 4,229
4 votes

What is the history of /ɨ/ vs /ï/?

Originally, the distinction was made between ɯ as a back unrounded vowel vs. ï as a "mixed" vowel. In 1932 (Copenhagen) there were substantial changes, indeed one could say that the old IPA was tossed ...
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  • 66.6k
4 votes

Phonology vs phonetics : /ʁɔz/ vs [ʁoz]

In French there is no phonological contrast between [o] and [ɔ] in closed syllables. Thus, phonologically you could analyse “rose” either as /ʁoz/ or equally well as /ʁɔz/. It is merely a matter of ...
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  • 22.6k
4 votes
Accepted

SAMPA of a language - phones or phonemes?

The 'phonemic touch' of SAMPA is not really a feature of SAMPA but of it's developmental relationship to IPA. There are two key things to know about IPA: As Colin Fine says, it is always only used ...
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4 votes

Difference between [i] and [j] or [u] and [w]

There is no difference that is intrinsic to these transcriptions. IPA letter do not represent exact pronunciations of a Platonic linguistic metalanguage, they snad for ranges of pronunciations in ...
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  • 66.6k
4 votes

How do they separate phones' length?

There is an even richer transcriptional tradition used in Finno-Ugric studies which allows up to 8 length distinctions. You can either get trained in transcribing durational distinctions auditorily, ...
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  • 66.6k
4 votes

which kind of phonetic symbol is it?

I found a copy of the PDF available for download by selecting the Download tab and passing the CAPTCHA. It's probably a widely pirated English lesson from koolearn, which other websites copied and ...
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  • 436
4 votes

Is IPA machine-readable?

I will assume that "machine readable" means that you want a computer to be able to scan/photograph the text and read it with a high degree of accuracy and furthermore the information should be able to ...
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4 votes

Does "You" or "Unicorn" begin with a vowel sound

You seem to be mixing up letters with sounds - don't mind the downvote; this is something that confuses many people who haven't had much linguistic training. "u" as the written letter is just a ...
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  • 6,120
4 votes

What is the meaning of the number 2 in Proto-Indo European reconstructions? e.g. As in *tewtéh₂, meaning "people" or "tribe"

It looks like the ₂ is called a laryngeal: The phonemes *h₁, *h₂, *h₃, with cover symbol H also denoting "unknown laryngeal" (or *ə₁, *ə₂, *ə₃ and /ə/), stand for three "laryngeal" phonemes. The ...
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  • 157
4 votes
Accepted

How can I write an interdental lateral in phonetic transcription?

extIPA gives you these options: Voiceless interdental lateral fricative: ɬ̪͆ Voiced interdental lateral fricative: ɮ̪͆ Voiced interdental lateral approximant: l̪͆ However, I find these diacritics a ...
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  • 4,652

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