24

Your basic premise is incorrect here: /w/ is listed in the Consonant section of the IPA page on Wikipedia, under Co-articulated consonants where it belongs. It doesn’t belong in the main table, because the main table orders consonants by place of articulation, and /w/ (like all co-articulated consonants) has multiple places of articulation: bilabial and ...


21

The numbers are specific to Proto-Indo-European. Scholars aren't sure how PIE was pronounced: after all, there are no native speakers around now, or records from the time. All of the sounds in reconstructed words are educated guesses at best. Some sounds were fairly easy to guess. For instance, there was a sound that seems to have become /t/ in most of PIE's ...


14

IPA is machine readable now, because the IPA characters are all in Unicode, the standard character set of today. At the time when SAMPA was created, character sets were either 7 bit (ASCII) or 8 bit (Latin-1, Latin-2 and the like) or specific to East Asian Scripts. Those character sets didn't incorporate IPA, and in this sense IPA wasn't machine readable at ...


12

There seem to be several common confusions in your question: Phonetic vs. phonemic Phoneme is a collection of sounds that serve the same function. For example, English phoneme /p/ sounds like [p] in 'spit' but like [ph] (h represents aspiration) in 'pit'. Speakers don't recognize them as two different sounds, though, because they have function e.g. to ...


8

Although /ɔ/ and /o/ do contrast in certain positions in French, the distinction is neutralized before /z/, where phonetically it's always the high-mid vowel that appears: [oz] but never [ɔz]. So it's a moot point which of the two to choose as your underlying representation. The French Wiki article opted for /ɔ/ presumably because this is the vowel that's ...


7

"You" begins with a consonant, in all senses of the word "consonant". There is a difference between "vowel" as used in English orthographic pedagogy and "vowel" as used in linguistics. The name of the letter "u" in English happens to be pronounced [ju], the same as "you". But in spelling books, the vowel letters are "a, e, i, o, u" and "sometimes y", and I ...


7

Nowadays, most major publications use IPA, and among those that don't, it's usually for historical reasons. Creating new phonetic alphabets isn't a particularly active area of research when there are already multiple standards that work well enough. (Some people do come up with extensions to the IPA, and some of those extensions eventually end up ...


6

Another hurdle to a 1-to-1 correspondence between phonemes and graphemes in a language has to do with language change and the fact that written language is more resistant to change than spoken language (and writing systems are even more reluctant to change), in general. In fact, you'll often find that languages that come the closest to having such a system ...


6

/ʝ/ vs. /ɟ/ Phonetically, there is a lot of variability in the realization of the Spanish sound that Wikipedia transcribes as /ʝ/, both between dialects, and in some cases between different utterances made by the same speaker; and there seems to be some unconditioned as well as conditioned allophony (see L2 perception of Spanish palatal variants across ...


6

There are a few authors that use the Russian Linguistic Alphabet (Русский лингвистический алфавит) or a variation of it. For example Balgina 2002 (see sections 56, 57, 58).


6

I am assuming that you got the "t*amano" from https://gawron.sdsu.edu/fundamentals/course_core/lectures/historical/historical.htm I think "t*amano" is a typo for "*tamano," with the asterisk in front of it indicating it is an unattested form (like other words in the protolangauge). It appears at the front of the word, like is convention, in every other word ...


5

The 'phonemic touch' of SAMPA is not really a feature of SAMPA but of it's developmental relationship to IPA. There are two key things to know about IPA: As Colin Fine says, it is always only used approximately. To encode every last fronting of a vowel, devoicing of a consonant, etc. would be prohibitively time consuming. So a phonetician will only ...


5

There has been a ton of research on the efficacy of phonics programs, but it is nearly all contentious and its significance hotly debated. Back in the early 1990s (the heyday of the Hooked On program) things got so tense and politically charged that people referred to the "Reading Wars". (Google it.) On one side were the proponents of "phonics first", who ...


5

Oh yes, very much so! The IPA is constantly changing and expanding, and existing symbols are moved, repurposed, and deleted. Many linguists still use the "Americanist" system, for instance, which prefers diacritics to new symbols (/š/ instead of /ʃ/) and single symbols (like /č/) for affricates. To give a few other examples: Some people like affricates ...


5

The layout of an IPA chart is partly arbitrary, by which I mean that there are patterns to it, but those patterns aren't necessary the only patterns that would have been reasonable. They just are what they are. I don't think you'll learn much about linguistics itself (as opposed to the history of linguistics) from trying to study them. The official chart has ...


4

An archiphoneme is employed when a surface phone (which has a definite phonetic value) could derive from a number of underlying sounds /x,y,z/ and there is no contrast between these segments in that environment. For example the question suffix of Turkish appears on the surface as [mi, mu, my, mɨ], and rather than arbitrarily select a specific phoneme as ...


4

As you know already C means consonants V means vowels And X means any phoneme s means /s/ sh means /ʃ/ () means the phoneme in brackets is optional


4

Originally, the distinction was made between ɯ as a back unrounded vowel vs. ï as a "mixed" vowel. In 1932 (Copenhagen) there were substantial changes, indeed one could say that the old IPA was tossed out for something like the new IPA, and at that point ʉ ɨ were introduced for central vowels. At that point, diaresis was given its current status of marking "...


4

In French there is no phonological contrast between [o] and [ɔ] in closed syllables. Thus, phonologically you could analyse “rose” either as /ʁoz/ or equally well as /ʁɔz/. It is merely a matter of convention. PS. Overlap with TKR's excellent answer.


4

There is an even richer transcriptional tradition used in Finno-Ugric studies which allows up to 8 length distinctions. You can either get trained in transcribing durational distinctions auditorily, or you can use Praat to determine durations from recordings, assuming you have a theory of landmarks (e.g. what do do with aspiration, how to make decisions ...


4

I found a copy of the PDF available for download by selecting the Download tab and passing the CAPTCHA. It's probably a widely pirated English lesson from koolearn, which other websites copied and pasted without taking care of the IPA symbols. The following is the full mapping. There are other symbols between brackets but they appear as is in the PDF, not ...


4

There is no difference that is intrinsic to these transcriptions. IPA letter do not represent exact pronunciations of a Platonic linguistic metalanguage, they snad for ranges of pronunciations in actual languages -- but each pronunciation is in a specific language. Languages can differ substantially in how <hau> is pronounced. The meaningful difference ...


4

I will assume that "machine readable" means that you want a computer to be able to scan/photograph the text and read it with a high degree of accuracy and furthermore the information should be able to be passed around in text form between a wide variety of computer systems with minimal risk of mangling. SAMPA limits itself to ASCII. Pretty much all computer ...


4

You seem to be mixing up letters with sounds - don't mind the downvote; this is something that confuses many people who haven't had much linguistic training. "u" as the written letter is just a symbol in the alphabet, which happens to be classified as a vowel in English, since "u" behaves as a vowel in words such as "turn", "tour" or "up". In this sense, "...


4

It looks like the ₂ is called a laryngeal: The phonemes *h₁, *h₂, *h₃, with cover symbol H also denoting "unknown laryngeal" (or *ə₁, *ə₂, *ə₃ and /ə/), stand for three "laryngeal" phonemes. The term laryngeal as a phonetic description is out of date, retained only because its usage has become standard in the field. The ʷ indicates labialization: ...


4

extIPA gives you these options: Voiceless interdental lateral fricative: ɬ̪͆ Voiced interdental lateral fricative: ɮ̪͆ Voiced interdental lateral approximant: l̪͆ However, I find these diacritics a bit of overkill, especially given American English /θ, ð/ are also usually interdental but never transcribed with these diacritics anyway. I bet just [ɬ̪, ɮ̪, ...


4

The general answer is "no", but in specific cases the answer could be "yes". First I think you need to pin down what exactly you hope to do. The internet is now full of phonetic transcriptions of words from all sorts of languages. You might think that with some such book, you can reliably figure out from reading a phonetic transcription ...


3

An archiphoneme is really not a phonetic entity. Trubetzkoy distinguished his archiphoneme from its surface manifestation, which he called the archiphoneme representative (Vertreter). However, there is a natural phonetic representation available for the typical case where the phonemes which are neutralized have all the possible values for some phonetic ...


3

Have you tried WikSpeak? It is a GUI-based tool for converting English texts into their IPA transcriptions. Since it is open source, it should be no problem to extract and examine the functionality that is relevant to your project.


3

It should be [ˈkœnn̩]. IPA notation hardly depends on what precedes. And since the first syllable remains closed (doesn't it?), there must be a pure [n] there. Besides, könn-, [kœn], is a distinct morpheme, there is no morpheme [kœ], so one still can break [ˈkœnn̩] into morphemes: [ˈkœn.n̩], which cannot be done with the other variants you suggested.


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