4

In theory, the IPA symbol ɲ is a palatal nasal stop, which means there's a complete closure blocking airflow through the mouth (near the palate), and all the airflow is exclusively through the nose. j̃ on the other hand is a nasalized palatal approximant, meaning there's no complete closure, so there is some airflow through the mouth as well as the nose. In ...


3

Outside the more ‘traditional’ areas of tonal languages, Swedish and Norwegian both have tones (albeit employed to a lesser degree than stereotypically tonal languages, being only distinguished in stressed syllables) and, being Germanic languages, generally release their syllable-final consonants. An example would be the Swedish minimal pair brynet ‘the edge ...


3

Punjabi is normally analysed as being tonal. They're rare, but syllable-final released stops may be found in words like /hʊkuːmət/ which I'm given to understand means "the secondmost" or something. Also consider Lakhota, which has phonemic tone and has a word /jatkə̃õna/ ("they drank it and..."). I'm assuming the syllable break occurs ...


3

The term ‘pre-fortis clipping’ refers not only to the shortening of vowels, but also any sonorants (i.e. approximants or nasals) that may intervene before the fortis obstruent in the coda of the syllable. The reason given in the blog for the invention of the term pre-fortis clipping is indeed that the previously used term shortening can cause confusion—...


2

Formant is a term used in speech research, and was coined 125 years ago by Ludimar Hermann (see this account), whereas resonance in the field of physics dates back to Pythagoras (the Latin term is a sufficiently ancient term that its hard to say how long ago the concept was given that name). The reason why other sciences don't use our term is that they got ...


2

There is no program that converts samples speech to IPA. Some program might appear to do that, by converting an utterance of language Z into its orthographic form then following conventional text-to-IPA rules to yield a psuedo-trancription, which that would not detect variations (among native speakers) between [i] and [ɛ] as the first vowel of "economic&...


1

Tibetan (at least most dialects) is normally considered tonal, and has at least a labial stop that's usually released in the syllable-final position. Depending on dialect and how the speaker is trying to distinctly enunciate, there may be released velar and possibly alveolar stops in the syllable-final position too. These more commonly become a(n unreleased) ...


1

An alternative to the "language keyboard" approach is the compose-key approach, exemplified by the inexpensive program "Accent Composer" (which I have used for decades), and also available in a number of open source versions for Windows, listed here. Accent Composer and AllChars use a "hotkey" (I don't know the other 3, I assume ...


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