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The linguists describing the language. As user6726 mentioned, phonemes are a theoretical construct. We can't actually take quantitative measurements that prove that this is a /k/ and this is a /t/, unlike in e.g. articulatory phonetics. So there are some linguists who claim Mandarin has only two vowels /ə a/, and some who claim it has five, /i y u ə a/, and ...


9

Linguist's choice One sense in which someone decides what the phonemes of a language are is when a linguist describes a language and proclaims what the phonemes of the language are (usually in some publication). Linguists use all sorts of logic to arrive at their list, and many linguists don't even subscribe to the concept "phoneme". Using the term ...


9

Phoible is a useful database for phonological questions containing more than 3000 inventories for more than 2000 languages They have just 19 inventories with a /ʀ/ (i.e. with a phonemic uvular trill). Additionally, 2 inventories with a /ʁ/ (i.e. a phonemic voiced uvular fricative) have a [ʀ] as an allophone. In some of these, [r] is given as an allophone, so ...


4

Another example is (certain Eritrean dialects of) Tigrinya. There is a trill which can be transcribed in IPA as [r], a clear alveolar trill, which is phonologically /R:/ (using "R" to unify tap and trill). Singleton /R/ is phonetically [ɾ]. Examples: [har:i] "silk", [baħaɾi] "sea". The dorsals /k, k', g/ lenite under obscure ...


4

It is almost vowels, but to verify this you would have to conduct a perceptual experiment, since loudness is a subjective ranking of sounds. Things that affect loudness judgments are duration (really short sounds aren't as "loud"), frequency (really low-pitched or high-pitched sounds aren't as "loud") and sound pressure level (the thing ...


3

The usual syllable division given for sequences like /ɪh/ in English is /ɪ.h/. Lax vowels can end syllables in some contexts "English syllables don't end in lax vowels such as /æ ʌ ʊ ɪ/ etc" is not actually easy to support as an exceptionless rule, so most theories of syllabification recognize exceptions. The most obvious example of a word with a ...


2

There's a dialect question as to what the pronunciation of "behave" is – I say [bəˈhɛiv], Jlawler says (I guess) [biˈhɛiv]. I say [biˈhɛd] but I've heard [bəˈhɛd]. We grew up in different towns, I think. You can't have the lax vowels in unstressed open syllables, which is why I reduce it to schwa, and it's just random chance as far as selecting a ...


2

You may consider Armenian. It has three different phonemes: tapped /ɾ/ <ր>, trilled /r/ <ռ>, and /ġ/ <ղ> (/ɫ/ in Classical Armenian), but I'm not sure /ġ/ is technically a trill, possibly more of a voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/ (at least in the standard dialect of Armenia).


2

There is some evidence of initial *h₁ in roots like *h₁es- "be". Alex B in the comments quotes an exercise from Fortson's textbook, Vedic ā́sat "monster" from *n̥-h₁s-. If the root were **∅es-, we would expect **n̥-∅s- > **ás- with a short vowel. But reconstructing it with the laryngeal, *n̥-h₁s- > ā́s- due to compensatory ...


2

Melchert claims that "voicing" was not distinguished word-initially or word-finally, with word-initial stops ending up fortis (PIE *geis- > kiš- "become" > reduplicated kikkiš- with a fortis consonant) and word-final stops ending up lenis (PIE *h₁poi-h₁ei-ti > pait "went" > paid=aš "he came" with a lenis ...


1

Arabic is a one such language, distinguishing between /r/ and /ʁ/, the latter oscillating between a vibrant and fricative pronunciation. I believe the uvular trill is not, however, considered an R type sound, e.g. in terms of phonotactics. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_phonology Reg. sanskrit, the two Rs are the same realisation, just one is syllabic, ...


1

There is no single diagram for all sounds, but there are diagrams for each sound. For those sounds that have movement in the manner and place of articulation (or other dimensions) then two or more diagrams are needed. That said, there are only sammy diagrams for some languages and these are not published (as far as I know) systematically. The key is to focus ...


1

Richness of the Base (RotB) is a slogan referring to the fact that Optimality Theory only evaluates output, and has no mechanism for saying what things exist in inputs. This is in contrast with rules-based theories which has Morpheme Structure Constraints that could say e.g. "No morpheme can end with a consonant". There are a number of paraphrases ...


1

This is a fundamental problem in phonological theory which has no trivial and/or universally accepted solution, and in the case of dissimilations there aren't even widely-accepted trendy solutions. Here is a baseline solution, in SPE theory, using a general scheme for segment skipping: [+son,+cor,-nas]→[+lat]/[+son,+cor,-nas]([+syl]₀ [-syl]₀)₀___ That is, &...


1

I don't know how homogenous is TextGrid across different tools that use it, but there is a Python package, pympi which can be used to read Praat TextGrid files. In particular, pympi.Praat.TextGrid class can be instantiated to read TextGrid files.


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Xmin and xmax are the starting times in seconds, within the file (which goes from 0 to 4.360703 seconds), and ORT-MAU tells you the same thing (in this instance), but then tells you the time periods of the individual words (where xmax-xmin is the duration of the word). So you would be interested in the texts “trial” and “offer” (not necessarily intervals [7] ...


1

"H5" or "fifth H" is generally transcribed either "h̭" or "ḫ₂", and represents what's very likely a phonemic split in later Egyptian. At a certain point, Egyptian ḫ starts being written in two different ways in group-writing: when it's written with the sign ḫ on its own ("ḫ₁"), it corresponds to ϩ in Sahidic ...


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