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Labiovelars like /kʷ/ (that is, the Latin qu- sound) and /ɡʷ/ have turned into labial stops in at least some environments in a few different languages (almost exclusively in European Indo-European languages); it happened in Greek after the Mycenaean period (compare e.g. the verb ἕπομαι hépomai 'to follow' with its Latin cognate sequor, both reflecting the ...


12

The change of /kʷ/ > /p/ is moderately common, cross-linguistically. It also happened in Osco-Umbrian aka "P-Italic" (Oscan pis ~ Latin quis "who"), the "P-Celtic" languages (Welsh pen < *kʷennom "head"), and most dialects of Greek (Attic hippos ~ Mycenaean i-qo "horse"). The usual explanation is that /...


4

In theory, the IPA symbol ɲ is a palatal nasal stop, which means there's a complete closure blocking airflow through the mouth (near the palate), and all the airflow is exclusively through the nose. j̃ on the other hand is a nasalized palatal approximant, meaning there's no complete closure, so there is some airflow through the mouth as well as the nose. In ...


3

Outside the more ‘traditional’ areas of tonal languages, Swedish and Norwegian both have tones (albeit employed to a lesser degree than stereotypically tonal languages, being only distinguished in stressed syllables) and, being Germanic languages, generally release their syllable-final consonants. An example would be the Swedish minimal pair brynet ‘the edge ...


3

Punjabi is normally analysed as being tonal. They're rare, but syllable-final released stops may be found in words like /hʊkuːmət/ which I'm given to understand means "the secondmost" or something. Also consider Lakhota, which has phonemic tone and has a word /jatkə̃õna/ ("they drank it and..."). I'm assuming the syllable break occurs ...


3

What you're asking for is a synopsis of all of phonetics, which is kind of unmanageable in a simple SE Q&A. The first thing to do is set aside syllables and focus on segments: [pa] and [ba] are similar because of the similarity or [p] and [b] and the identity of [a]. You can work on understanding syllable similarity in terms of the similarity of the ...


1

Tibetan (at least most dialects) is normally considered tonal, and has at least a labial stop that's usually released in the syllable-final position. Depending on dialect and how the speaker is trying to distinctly enunciate, there may be released velar and possibly alveolar stops in the syllable-final position too. These more commonly become a(n unreleased) ...


1

An alternative to the "language keyboard" approach is the compose-key approach, exemplified by the inexpensive program "Accent Composer" (which I have used for decades), and also available in a number of open source versions for Windows, listed here. Accent Composer and AllChars use a "hotkey" (I don't know the other 3, I assume ...


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